The Coastal Erosion is the process of wearing away of the land by the sea due to corrosion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution. India's has long peninsular region and due to developmental activities are often carried out without properly understanding the coastal dynamics, leading to long-term damage, particularly to local communities. It came into the light when one of biodiversity rich uninhabited islands part of Lakshadweep has disappeared due to coastal erosion and another four such islands in Lakshadweep Sea are shrinking fast.
The Ministry of Earth Sciences was formed in 2006 from a merger of the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, and Earth Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC), and the Ministry of Ocean Development for monitoring the shoreline changes along the Indian coast on an annual basis. Recently it gives some findings on Coastal erosion which are given below:
1. The 89% of Andaman and Nicobar Islands shoreline eroded by the Bay of Bengal.
2. The shoreline of Tamil Nadu facing the process of accretion (a gradual deposition by water of mud, sand to form dry land), that causes 62% of its coast gaining land.
3. Goa has the highest percentage (52%) of stable shoreline.
Reason for Coastal Erosion
1. Wave Energy
2. Climate Change
3. Strong littoral drift
4. Construction dams in catchment areas
5. Sand and coral mining and dredging
1. Construction of saline stone-packaging and breakwater structures
2. By constructing low walls called groyne
3. By installing Geo-Synthetic Tubes
4. By growing more vegetation along the coastline
4. Encouraging Social Forestry
5. Encouraging conservation activities, educational and recreational opportunities (Eco-development).
The coastal regions where land and water meet are ecologically dynamic and sensitive regions, as marine and coastal ecosystems continuously impact on each other. These regions has rich ecosystem such as mangroves, water bodies, seaweeds coral reefs, fisheries and other marine life, and other coastal and marine vegetation. These ecosystems protect the region from saline winds, cyclones, tsunami waves etc., promote carbon sequestration and promote biodiversity as well as provide raw materials for a number of manufacturing activities. Hence, this is an alarming situation for us to overcome from the coastal erosion.