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Geographical Structure of Bihar: Geology | Physiology | Plain |Plateau

15-DEC-2016 17:18

    The Geographical Structure of Bihar is embedded with younger geological structure in the North by Dharwarian rocks and older in the South by quaternary rocks. As far as the physiological structure is concern, Bihar is consists of Terai in the North-West, Gangetic Plain in the centre and Plateau in the Southern region. Here, we are giving brief outline of Geographical and Physiological Structure of Bihar which will be helpful for the aspirants as revision capsule to those who are preparing for the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state level examinations.

    Geology of Bihar

    The Geology of Bihar corresponds the balance picture of the term geology because it is consists of younger (Tertiary Period) and older formation of rock (Pre-Cambrian period), and the plain was formed by filling up of a vast trough by the heavy loads of detritus carried by swiftly flowing rivers down the Southern slopes of newly uplifted Himalayas.


    List of rocks found in geographical land area of Bihar

    Types of rocks

    Confined area and rock descriptions



    Dharwar Rock

    1. Found in the South-Eastern part of Bihar like Munger, Jamui, and Nawada.

    2. They are made up of Quartzite, phyllite, Gneiss, Schist and slate

    3. Region is dominated by mica-schists

    Vindhyan Rock

    1. Found in South- Western part of Bihar in between Kaimur district and Sone river valley in Rohtas District.

    2. They are made up of sandstone, quartzite, limestone, dolomites and shale

    Tertiary Rock

    1. Found in Himalayan terai region of Bihar.

    2. Formed by up warping of sediments deposited in Tethys Sea between Eurasian plate and Indian plate.


    Quaternary Rock

    1. Found in down warped section between Himalayas and Chhotanagpur Plateau

    2. They are made up of sandstones, alluvium, conglomerate, coarse gravel etc.

    Physiography of Bihar

    Bihar is 13th largest state of India in terms of geographical area and constitutes only 2.86 % of the total land of India.

    Climate and Soil Profile of Bihar

    Physiographical Division of Bihar

    Bihar is divided into three physiographic units on the basis of physical and structural conditions i.e. Shiwalik Range; Bihar Plain; and Southern Plateau Region.

    Shiwalik Range

    This range shadows the state from Northern part of West Champaran district over an area 32 km long and 6-8 km wide and it is divided into sub-divided into three parts on the basis of variation:

    1. Ramanagar Doon

    2. Someshwar Range

    3. Harha Valley

    List of major Rivers in Bihar

    Bihar Plain

    It is located between Northern Mountains and Southern Plateau region which is bounded by 150m contour line in the North as well as in the South. This plain is sub-divided into two parts on the basis of characteristics:

    1. Northern Plain: It is located in East & West Champaran (Terai area with higher elevation), and Chaurs of Samastipur, Begusarai, Saharsa and Kathihar districts. Region is drained by Saryu, Gandak, Burhi Gandak, Bagmati, Kamla-Balan, Kosi and Mahanadi and their tributaries.

    2. Southern Plain: It is narrow than northern plain of Bihar and triangular in shape because many hills are located in this region such as hills of Gaya, Rajgir, Giriak, Bihar Sharif, Sheikhpura, Jamalpur and Kharagpur hills.

    Southern Plateau Region

    It is located between Kaimur districts in the West to Banka in the East. It is made up of hard rock’s like gneiss, schist and granite. This region blessed with many conical hills which are made up of batholim like Pretshil, Ramshila and Jethian hill.

    List of Waterfalls and Hot Springs in Bihar

    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

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