Summary of Indian National Movement
Summary of Indian National Movement
It has been observed that the struggles for Freedom in India had been a merger of a series of Political, Socio-Cultural and Economic factors that led to the rise of Nationalism.
- On 28 December 1885 Indian National Congress (INC) was founded in the premises of Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit School at Bombay. It was presided over by W.C Banerjee and attended by 72 delegates. A.O Hume played an instrumental role in the foundation of INC with an aim to provide Safety Valve to the British Government.
- A.O Hume served as a first General Secretary of INC.
- Real Aim of Congress is to trained the Indian youth in political agitation and to organise or to create public opinion in the country. For this they use the method of annual session where they discuss the problem and passed the resolution.
- The first or early phase of Indian Nationalism is also termed as Moderate Phase (1885-1905). Moderate leaders were W.C Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, R.C Dutt, Ferozeshah Mehta, George Yule etc.
- Moderates have full faith in British Government and adopted PPP path i.e. Protest, Prayer and Petition.
- Due to disillusionment from Moderates methods of work, extremism began to develop within the congress after 1892. The Extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipinchandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh. Instead of PPP path they emphasise on self-reliance, constructive work and swadeshi.
- With the announcement of Partition of Bengal (1905) by Lord Curzon for administrative convenience, Swadeshi and Boycott resolution was passed in 1905.
Congress Sessions during Swadeshi Movement:
1. 1905 – Congress session in Banaras. Presided over by Gopal Krishan Gokhale.
2. 1906 – Congress Session in Calcutta. Presided over by Dadabhai Naroji.
3. 1907 – Congress Session in Surat on the bank of the river Tapti. Presided over by Pherozeshah Mehta where due to the differences between Moderates and Extremist first split in Congress occurred.
Towards Quit India Movement
Important Congress Sessions:
√ 1936 – Lucknow (UP) – Presided by J.L Nehru
√ 1937 – Faizpur (Maharashtra) – Presided by J.L Nehru ( First session held in village)
√ 1938 – Haripura (Gujarat) – Presided by S.C Bose
√ 1939 – Tripuri (M.P) – Presided by S.C Bose
- On September, 1939 IInd World War broke out and India was declared an ally without its consent.
- In 1939 S.C Bose founded Forward Bloc. It was a left party.
- On 10th August, 1940 – August Offer was announced by Lord Linlithgow viceroy to get the support of Indians in the Second World War.
- On 11th March, 1942 Prime Minister Winstill Churchill announced for sending a mission under the chairmanship of Sir Stafford Cripps to find out the solution of constitutional deadlock and problems of Indians.
- With the failure of Cripps Mission Quit India movement was started in 1942 by the Indian leaders and the resolution of Quit India was drafted by Gandhi Ji. Gandhi ji gave a call for Do or Die.
- In 1942 - Indian National Army was founded by Captain Mohan Singh and Niranjan Gill at Singapore. S. C Bose took over its command of 2nd Headquarter at Singapore and Rangoon.
- On 21st October, 1943 – Azad Hind Government was set up at Singapore under S.C Bose. There was a women regiment known as Rani Jhansi.
- In 1945, Second World War was ended.
- In 1945 – Shimla Conference or Wavell Plan was proposed by Lord Wavell to solve the political deadlock.
- In 1946, Cabinet Mission Plan was announced by PM Clement Attlee.
- On 2nd September, 1946 - Interim Government was set up under J.L Nehru.
- On March, 1947 – Lord Mountbatten was send to India with an aim to find a way to transfer of power. Also known as Plan Balkan.
- On 3rd June Independence of India Act 1947 was passed by which powers were transferred to two Dominion States India and Pakistan.
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