The Eastern Coastal Plains
The Eastern Coastal Plains extends between the Eastern Ghats and the sea coast from Subarnarekha River to Kanyakumari. It is wider than Western Coastal Plain because the rivers like Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri formed the delta over there. The continental shelf extends up to 500 km into the sea, which makes it difficult for the development of good ports and harbours. In Eastern Coastal plain, there is the Kolleru lake which situated in the delta region of Godavari and the Krishna Rivers. Chilka lake and and Pulicat lake are best example of lagoon which is also found in this region. The Orissan plain is also known as the Utkal Plain. The plain between the Godavari and the Mahanadi is known as the Northern Circar whereas the eastern coast of Tamil Nadu is called the Coromandel Coast. This plain is divided into six region viz. Coromandel Coast, Kanyakumari Coast, Krishna-Godavari deltas, Mahanadi delta and south of Andhra Pradesh plain which discussed below:
• Coromandel Coast: The coast is named after an ancient dynasty Cholas that ruled over Tamil Nadu. It is a wide coastal region covering an area of 8800 square miles in eastern Tamil Nadu and shares its borders with Utkal Plains, Bay of Bengal, Kaveri delta and Eastern Ghats. It is a straight coastline comprising of many temples and therefore, is also known as the ‘land of temples’. The coastline does not have dense forests and the soil is marshy. Coconut palms stand tall alongside the coastline. The economy of this region largely depends upon Agriculture. Crops of sugarcane, legumes, rice, groundnuts and cotton are grown here which serve as major source of income for farmers. Apart from this, there are several large-scale industries in the area that manufacture chemicals, fertilizers, automobiles and amplifiers. Running parallel to the coastline, are interlinking roads and railway tracks that link major cities like Chennai with Cuddalore, Chengalpattu, Puducherry and Cuddalore.
• Kanyakumari Coast: It is extended over the southern part of India’s coastline.
• Krishna Delta: It is located in the south-east of Vijayawada.
• Godavari Delta: It is about 150 kms in length and its geological structure is same as Mahandi River.
• Mahanadi Delta: It is located in the Eastern coastline and comprises of fertile alluvial soil.
• Coastal Andhra Plain: It is situated in the state of Andhra Pradesh. This region is very fertile due to silt deposit of the Krishna and Godavari Rivers.