The Sena Empire, a Hindu dynasty, ruled in Bengal from the 11th to 12th centuries AD. The empire at its top secured a great part of the North-Eastern district of the Indian subcontinent. The rulers of the Sena Dynasty followed their origin toward the south Indian district of Karnataka.
Hemanta Sen, the founder of the dynasty, was part of the Pala Dynasty until it started to debilitate. Hemanta Sen usurped power and styled himself ruler in 1095 AD. His successor Vijay Sen (ruled from 1096 AD to 1159 AD) helped establish the administration's frameworks, and had a surprisingly long rule of more than 60 years. Ballal Sena vanquished Gaur from the Pala, turned into the ruler of the Bengal Delta, and made Nabadwip the capital also. Ballal Sena wedded Ramadevi a Western's princess Chalukya Empire which shows that the Sena rulers kept up close social contact with South India. Lakshman Sen succeeded Ballal Sena in 1179 AD, ruled Bengal for give or take 20 years, and extended the Sena Empire to Assam, Odisha, Bihar and likely to Varanasi. In 1203–1204 AD, the Turkic general Bakhtiyar Khilji assaulted Nabadwip. Khilji defeated Lakshman Sen and caught northwest Bengal - Albeit Eastern Bengal stayed under Sena control.
Rulers of Senas
The political position after the downfall of the Pala power in Bengal was taken by the Senas whose king Vijayasena succeeded in conquering an extensive part of Pala region. The Senas were the supporters of conventional Hinduism. The dynasty follows its origin toward the South, toward the Western Chalukya Empire of Southern India. There is a record of a Western Chalukya attack amid the rule of Someshvara I drove by his son Vikramaditya VI who defeated the rulers of Gauda and Kamarupa. This intrusion of the Kannada ruler brought assemblages of his compatriots from Karnataka into Bengal which clarifies the origin of the Sena Dynasty.
The founder of the Sena rule was Samantasena who depicted himself as a Kshatriya of Karnataka. He himself expressed that he battled the fugitives of Karnataka and later turned a plain. The engravings of the Sena lords notice them as Brahma-Kshatriyas or Kshatriyas. Something else, sources have distinguished them with the Vaidya and also the Ambashtha rank or sub-position, considered as a blended station, being conceived of Brahmin father and Vaishya mother, and they wedded with and were related to the Bengali Vaidyas in Vaidya Kula-panjikas (family-tree accounts).
Sena Dynasty had ruled Bengal for minimal over a century (c 1097-1225). The dynasty's development, which supplanted the Palas in Bengal towards the end of eleventh century A.D. Exploiting the rebellion of Samantachakra in Varendra amid the rule of Mahipala II, Vijaysena, founder of the Sena line, bit by bit solidified his position in western Bengal and at last accepted a free position amid the rule of Madanapala. One critical part of Sena rule in Bengal is that the entire domain of Bengal was brought under a solitary rule interestingly. It is likely difficult to give unequivocal data to the inquiry in respect to how the family entered Bengal. The Sena records additionally are amazingly quiet about this.
The Sena rulers claim in their own particular engravings that they are Brahma-Kshatriyas. Their remote progenitor was one Virasena, whose name should have been specified in Puranas. The "Deopara Inscription" of the Senas likewise follows the Sena family line from Virasena. Since there are no bona fide records accessible still, a sharp contention wins among researchers with respect to origin of the Senas.
Like the origin of the Senas, their initial history or circumstances, which drove them to move in Bengal is additionally still obscure. It has been assumed by students of history that the Senas came to Bengal on the attacking's eve armed force drove by the Chalukya rulers Vikramaditya VI and Someswara III. A few researchers have likewise recommended that when Rajendra Chola's armed force had attacked Bengal, the Senas had gone with them. As indicated by some different antiquarians, a couple Karnataka authorities, who were subordinate to the Pala rulers, had built up their autonomous kingdom in the area of Radha, exploiting the shortcoming of the Pala powers. Those Karnataka boss may have landed in Bengal in wake of the Chalukya attack and had sunk into a kingdom they could call their own. As indicated by students of history Samantasena was such a boss who had built up his free kingdom in the Radha locale of Bengal.
Samantasena was a scion of the Sena family, who had separated himself through different fighting methodologies in South India. He had settled in Radha in Bengal, at a maturity. He had likewise established the framework of the Sena family in Bengal. His son Hemantasena cut out a vital kingdom in Radha, exploiting the decay of the Pala Empire. From their base in Radha, the Senas eventually broadened their powers over the entire of Bengal.
The Sena rulers merged the caste framework in Bengal. Albeit Bengal acquired from the standing arrangement of Mithila, position was not all that solid in Bengal as in Mithila.
The Sena administration is acclaimed for building Hindu temples and religious communities, which incorporate the prestigious Dhakeshwari Temple in what is presently Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Kashmir, the line additionally likely fabricated a temple, which is credited to a Gaureshwara or Ballala Sena.
The Sena rulers were additionally extraordinary benefactors of writing. Amid the Pala administration and the Sena line, real development in Bengali was seen. Some Bengali creators trust that Jayadeva, the acclaimed Sanskrit writer and writer of Gita Govinda, was one of the Pancharatnas (five gems) in the court of Lakshman Sen.