The entire world is facing the problem arises by the environmental changes. So the world is looking for some alternative sources which can be economical as well as environment friendly.
For that matter the Government of India had launched the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme for reducing the environmental degradation and prevents the emissions of Green House Gases (GHGs) such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane into the atmosphere.
Before moving on to the discussion, firstly know that- What is Biogas?
Biogas is a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste.
Benefits of biogas technology
The salient feature of the biogas technology is given below:
1. It provides clean gaseous fuel for cooking and lighting.
2. Digested slurry from biogas plants is used as enriched bio-manure to supplement the use of chemical fertilizers.
3. It improves sanitation in villages and semi -urban areas by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants.
4. Biogas Plants help in reducing the causes of climate change.
National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP)
National Biogas and Manure Management Programme will provides for setting up of Family Type Biogas Plants mainly for rural and semi-urban/households. A family type biogas plant generates biogas from organic substances such as cattle –dung, and other bio-degradable materials such as biomass from farms, gardens, kitchens and night soil wastes etc.
The scheme of this programme is implementing through the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy in all the States and UTs in India. About 47.5 Lakh biogas plants have already been installed in the country upto 31st March, 2014. During the year 2014-15, a target of setting up 1,10,000 biogas plants has been set. The Biogas plant is the best option for households having feed material, to become self- dependent for cooking gas and highly organic enriched bio-manure. It provides the solution to protect the households from the problems of indoor air pollution and while saving on cost of refilling of LPG cylinders.
Objectives of the National Biogas and Manure Management programme (NBMMP)
1. To provide fuel for cooking purposes and organic manure to rural households through family type biogas plants
2. To mitigate drudgery of rural women, reduce pressure on forests and accentuate social benefits
3. To improve sanitation in villages by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants
Components of the National Biogas and Manure Management programme (NBMMP)
1. Indigenously developed models of biogas plants are promoted.
2. States have designated nodal departments and nodal agencies for implementation. Besides, Khadi and Village Industries Commission, Mumbai; National Dairy Development Board, Anand (Gujarat), and national and regional level non-governmental organisations are involved in implementation.
3. Project provides for different types of financial incentives including central subsidy to users, turn key job fee to entrepreneurs, service charges to State Nodal Departments / Agencies and support for training and publicity.
4. Various kinds of training programmes are supported. Biogas Development and Training Centres, functioning in nine major States, provide technical and training back up to State Nodal Departments and Nodal Agencies.
5. Commercial and co-operative banks provide loan for setting up of biogas plants under Agriculturally Priority Area. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is providing the facility of automatic refinancing to banks.