Some basic concepts of Chemistry:
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory; concept of elements, atoms and molecules, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Structure of Atom:
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron and their characteristics; atomic number, Isotopes & Isobars, Thomson's model and its limitation, Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglic's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, Quantum numbers, shapes of S.P. and D orbitals, rules, for filling electrons in orbitals Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties:
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements - atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, Covalent characters of Ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital, theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bonding.
States of Matter : gases and liquids:
Three states of matter, Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charle's law, Gay Lussac's law Avogadro's law, Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro's number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquification of gases, critical temperature.
Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, Sublimation, phase transformation, ionization and solution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-sponteneous process, criteria for equilibrium.
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle; ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide - preparation, reactions and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
S-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals):
Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii) trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use, lime and limestone. Biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction p-Block Elements:
Group 3 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron-physical and chemical properties, some important compounds : borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium : uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Group 4 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds : oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon tetrachloride, silicons, silicates and zeolite. (Part-I)
Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques:
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond; inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Hemolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carboanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Classification of hydrocarbons:
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical reactions including halogenation, free radical mechanism, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane), geometrical isomerism, methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical reaction : addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophyllic addition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical reactions; acidic character of alkynes, addition reactions of hydrogen, halogenes, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons - Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene : resonance, aromaticity : methods of preparation, chemical properties.
Mechanism of electrophilec substitution - nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedal Craft's alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Environmental pollution - Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere smogs, major atmospheric pollutants : acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Classification of solids based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties--relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, calatyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids: properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion - types of emulsions.
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements:
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and Iron.
Group - 5 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group - 6 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxdides; Ozone, Sulphur-allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group - 7 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group - 8 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. (Part-II)
d- and f- Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Coordination Compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes:
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers:
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins - Elementary idea of a - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA.
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Chemistry in Everyday life:
1. Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.