CBSE Class 12th Psychology Board Exam 2020 is scheduled for 22nd February and students are in the last minute revision process. To help the students in quick preparation and revision we have created this list of important questions and answers based on the latest syllabus prescribed by CBSE.
1 Mark Questions
Ques: The impact of any stressful event depends largely on the way we interpret it. (True /False)
Ques :‘Perceiving or thinking that one has got less than what one should get’ refers to __________.
Ques : The minimalistic perspective suggests that the physical environment exists mainly for use by human beings. True/False
Ques : A ____________ is a purposeful conversation between two or more people that follows a basic question and answer format
Ques : When you are interacting with a close friend or relative, you maintain a distance of about 18 inches to 4 feet. This distance is called __________.
Ans: Personal Distance
Ques : People growing up in a large family that lives in a small house develop _____ tolerance.
Ques: A student with high aptitude in verbal reasoning and strong interest in reading is more likely to succeed as a ___________.
2 Marks Questions
Ques: Distinguish between interpersonal and intrapersonal communication.
Ans: a. Intrapersonal communication involves communicating with yourself. It en- compasses such activities as thought processes, personal decision-making, and focusing on self.
b. Interpersonal communicationrefers to the communication that takes place between two or more persons who establish a communicative relationship. Forms of interpersonal communication include face- to-face or mediated conversations, interview and small group discussions.
Ques: What are the characteristics that comprise positive health?
Ans: The characteristics that comprise positive health are- healthy body; high quality of personal relationships; a sense of purpose in life; self- regard, mastery of life’s tasks; and resilience to stress, trauma, and change
Ques: What are situational stress tests?
Ans: Type of behavioural analysis. Provides us with information about how a person behaves under stressful situation. Involves role playing for which he is observed.
Ques: How is empathy different from sympathy?
Ans: In sympathy one has compassion and pity towards the suffering of another but is not able to feel like the other person.
Empathy- understanding the plight of another person as well understanding things from other’s perspective.
Ques: Why is it important to develop ethical standards and codes in counseling?
Ans: 1. Counselling is part of the service sector. Thus, not following ethical standards will have legal implications.
- Client counselor relationship is based on ethical practice. It guides the ethical conduct of behaviour and decision making in actual clinical setting. Any other relevant point.
3 Marks Questions
Ques: Why is emotional intelligence receiving increasing attention of educators?
Ans: Definition of emotional intelligence/ any two characteristics of emotional intelligence ·
- beneficial effects on academic achievement ·
- encourages cooperative behaviour and reduces antisocial activities · very useful in preparing students to face the challenges of life outside the classroom
Ques: How is substance dependence different from substance abuse?
Ans: In substance dependence, there is intense craving for the substance to which the person is addicted, and the person shows tolerance, withdrawal symptoms and compulsive drug taking. Tolerance means that the person has to use more and more of a substance to get the same effect. Withdrawal refers to physical symptoms that occur when a person stops or cuts down on the use of a psychoactive substance.
In substance abuse, there are recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the use of substances. People who regularly ingest drugs damage their family and social relationships, perform poorly at work, and create physical hazards.
Ques: Examine the role of listening in communication. How does culture influence the development of listening process?
Ans: Listening requires a person to be attentive, patient, non-judgmental and yet have the capacity to analyse and respond. It is a process that involves reception, attention, assignment of meaning, and listener’s response to the message presented.
Role of Culture in Listening - Asian cultures, such as India, emphasise on listening by being a silent communicator when receiving messages from seniors or elders. Buddhism, for instance, has a notion called ‘mindfulness’ which helps to develop longer attention spans and therefore, lead not only to better listening but also to sympathetic listening. However, in many cultures, such listening enhancing concepts are not present.
Ques: How does understanding of body language help in effective communication?
Ans: Body language is composed of all those messages that people exchange besides words.
Single nonverbal signal does not carry complete meaning. Cluster includes gestures, postures, eye contact, clothing style (all of them considered together)
Congruency between current and past patterns of behavior and harmony between verbal and nonverbal communication helps in communication.
Ques: “Poverty begets poverty”. Justify the statement.
Ans: Explain the Poverty cycle taking into account the following points a. Low income and resources
- Low health and nutrition
- Lack of education and skills
- Low employment opportunities
- Low motivation
4 Marks Questions
Ques: What is the role of biofeedback in dealing with stress?
Ans: It monitors and reduces physiological aspects of stress by providing feedback about current physiological activities and accompanied by relaxation training.
- It involves three stages:
- developingan awareness of the particular physiological response;
- learningways of controlling that physiological response in quiet conditions.
- transferringthat control into the conditions of everyday life.
Ques: How is creativity related to intelligence? Differentiate between creativity tests and intelligence tests.
Ans: Imagination starts developing in early childhood and expressed through physical activities. Variations in potential for creativity heredity and environment like motivation, commitment, family support, peer influences, training, and opportunity.
- Terman, 1920, all creative people are intelligent, may not be high IQ, But all gifted people may not be creative. Therefore, intelligence by itself does not ensure creativity.
- Creative tests to assess variations- open ended; freedom to use ones imagination and express it in original ways; divergent thinking; ability to see new relationships; guess causes and consequences; put things in a new perspective.
- Intelligence tests are closed ended; convergent thinking; assesses memory, logical reasoning, accuracy, perceptual ability, clear thinking. No scope for originality, spontaneity, imagination.
Ques: Describe Lazarus’ general model of stress appraisal.
Ans: • Based on Cognitive theory of stress as given by Lazarus et al.
- Depends on how the stressful event is interpreted or appraised.
- Primary appraisal- positive, negative and neutral
- Secondary appraisal- They are subjective and depend on:
o Past experiences. o Controllable- sense of self confidence and self-efficacy
o Type of stressor- environmental, social or psychological
o Dimensions of the stressor- intensity, duration, complexity predictability o Person characteristics- physiological, psychological, cultural
o Resources- physical, personal and social
Ques: What is addictive behaviour? Name any two frequently abused substances and describe their consequences.
Ans: - Addictive behaviour involves excessive intake of high calorie food resulting in extreme obesity or involving the abuse of substances such as alcohol or cocaine. ·
- Disorders relating to maladaptive behaviours resulting from regular and consistent use of the substance involved are included under substance related and addictive disorders ·
- These alter the way people think, feel and behave.
Ques: What are some of the measures suggested by WHO to prevent suicide? What are the approaches that are useful in strengthening positive self-esteem in children?
Ans: Some measures suggested by WHO include:
- limiting access to the means of suicide
- reporting of suicide by media in a responsible way • bringing in alcohol-related policies
- early identification, treatment and care of people at risk
- training health workers in assessing and managing for suicide
- care for people who attempted suicide and providing community support
To foster positive self-esteem in children the following approaches can be useful:
- accentuating positive life experiences to develop positive identity. This increases confidence in self.
- providing opportunities for development of physical, social and vocational
- establishing a trustful communication.
- goals for the students should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant
Ques: A big percentage of the population lives below the poverty line in India. As a responsible student, suggest steps to reduce poverty
Ans: Brief explanation of any 4 of the points given below: ·
- breaking poverty cycle by helping attain self-sufficiency ·
- helping poor take responsibility ·
- providing educational and employment opportunities ·
- measures for improving mental health ·
- steps for empowering the poor ·
- any other relevant point
6 Marks Questions
Ques: What are anxiety disorders? Explain its types.
Ans: Anxiety disorders is a combination of the following symptoms: rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, fainting, dizziness, sweating, sleeplessness, frequent urination and tremors.
-Types of anxiety disorders:
- Generalised anxiety disorder-consists of prolonged, vague, unexplained and intense fears that are not attached to any particular object. The symptoms include worry and apprehensive feelings about the future; hyper vigilance, motor tension, as a result of which the person is unable to relax, is restless, and visibly shaky and tense.
- Panic disorder-consists of recurrent anxiety attacks in which the person experiences intense terror. A panic attack denotes an abrupt surge of intense anxiety; occur in an unpredictable manner. The clinical features include shortness of breath, dizziness, trembling, palpitations, choking, nausea, chest pain or discomfort, fear of going crazy, losing control or dying.
- Phobias-irrational fears related to specific objects, people, or situations. Phobias can be grouped into three main types, i.e. specific phobias, social phobias, and agoraphobia.
- Obsessive-compulsive disorderare unable to control their preoccupation with specific ideas or are unable to prevent themselves from repeatedly carrying out a particular act or series of acts that affect their ability to carry out normal activities. obsessive behaviour is the inability to stop thinking and compulsive behaviour is the need to perform certain behaviours over and over again.
- Post- traumatic stress disorder -include recurrent dreams, flashbacks, impaired concentration, and emotional numbing
Ques: Identify the causes belying any international conflict which is causing distress to humanity. As a psychologist, what strategies would you suggest to resolve this conflict?
Ans: Identify the conflict; Mention the causes- poverty, fighting for resources, religion,etc
- Some of these strategies to resolve conflicts are:
- Introduction of superordinate goals :Like Sherif’s study showed that by introducing superordinate goals, inter-group conflict can be reduced. Altering perceptions : Conflicts can also be reduced by altering perceptions and reactions through persuasion, educational and media appeals, and portrayal of groups differently in society.
- Increasing intergroup contacts :This can be done by involving groups in conflict on neutral grounds through community projects and events. The idea is to bring them together so that they become more appreciative of each others stand.
- Respect for other group’s norms : It has been noticed that a number of communal riots between different groups have taken place because of such insensitivity
Ques: Why do conflicts arise between groups and how can they be resolved?
Ans: Conflict is a process in which either an individual or a group perceives that others have opposing interests, and both try to contradict each other; intense feeling of We and they.
Major reasons of conflict: lack of communication; relative deprivation; believe in the superiority of ones party over the other; feeling of being poorly regarded by others; Desire for retaliation; biased perception; people in a group are more aggressive; perceived inequity.
Resolution of conflict: Introduction of super ordinate goals; Altering perception Redrawing group boundaries; Increasing intergroup contacts; Negotiations; Structural solutions; Respect for other group norms.
Ques: Explain mental disorders from the perspective of any three psychological models.
Ans: 1. Psychodynamic model -Abnormal symptoms are viewed as the result of conflicts between these forces. This model was first formulated by Freud who believed that three central forces shape personality- intrapsychic conflict— instinctual needs, drives and impulses (id), rational thinking (ego), and moral standards (superego).
- Behavioural model.This model states that both normal and abnormal behaviours are learned and psychological disorders are the result of learning maladaptive ways of behaving. Learning can take place by classical conditioning (temporal association in which two events repeatedly occur close together in time), operant conditioning (behaviour is followed by a reward), and social learning (learning by imitating others’ behaviour).
- Cognitive model.People may hold assumptions and attitudes about themselves that are irrational and inaccurate. People may also repeatedly think in illogical ways and make overgeneralizations, that is, they may draw broad, negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event.
- Humanistic-existential model, which focuses on broader aspects of human existence. Humanists believe that human beings are born with a natural tendency to be friendly, cooperative and constructive, and are driven to selfactualise, i.e. to fulfil this potential for goodness and growth. Existentialists believe that from birth we have total freedom to give meaning to our existence or to avoid that responsibility. Those who shirk from this responsibility would live empty, inauthentic, and dysfunctional lives.
Ques: Is there a consistency between attitude and behavior? Explain.
Ans: Attitude and behaviour are consistent when
- the attitude is strong, and occupies a central place in the attitude system,
- the person is aware of her/his attitude,
- there is very little or no external pressure for the person to behave in a particular way. For example, when there is no group pressure to follow a particular norm,
- the person’s behaviour is not being watched or evaluated by others, and
- the person thinks that the behaviour would have a positive consequence, and therefore, intends to engage in that behaviour.
- when behaviour decides the attitude. For example, when somebody indulges in a behaviour, it may lead to change in attitude.