OTBA, the Open Textbook assessment was introduced by CBSE for classes IX and XI, from March, 2014 Examination. The main objective of OTBA is to drift the students’ mind away from memorization and incorporate the analytical and theoretical skills within and provide with the opportunities to make an effective use of memory.
OTBA for class IX forms a part of Summative Assessment II that is held in March, every year and is applicable to all the main subjects: Hindi, English, Maths, Science and Social Science.
The Moral Challenges of Information Technology
The move from one set of dominant information technologies to another is always morally
9contentious. Socrates lived during the long transition from a largely oral tradition to a newer
information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those
writings into 10scrolls and books. For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing,since it does not help 11foster wisdom and understanding. But the new information technologies follow the dictum: Why learn anything when information is just an Internet search away?
The Fundamental Character of Information Technologies
Information technologies change quickly and move in and out of fashion at a rapid pace. This makes it difficult to try to list them all and classify the moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is so fast and12momentous, has caused some to argue that we need to deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever-13morphing nature of information technology is changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. In the given context, all information technologies or applications can be categorized into at least three different types as discussed below.
All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize
information. For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to communicate
information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the computer can perform all of them. Described as a universal machine, it can be programmed to 14emulate any form of information technology.
Moral Values in Information Recording
We live in a world rich in data and the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access
information, it is done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all
parties involved. However, moral 15conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our 16tacit consent.
Whereas traditionally the control of information was exercised by religious organizations,
universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks, corporations etc, today each citizen has access to more and more of that stored information without the necessity of utilizing the traditional 17mediators of that information and therefore to a greater individual share of social power.2