Reading Comprehension, Synonyms and Antonyms
Directions (1 – 12): Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Passage - 1
The world has come around to the view that democracy is essential for full human development. And only education and skill development can make this possible. Democracy cannot be sustained unless the electorate is well informed, chooses its leadership wisely, and this leadership is intellectually empowered by a multi-dimensional intelligence. The world view of economic development has completely changed: it is no longer believed to be driven by human labor, as Karl Marx said, or by capital, as Alfred Marshall stated, but is knowledge-driven. For application of knowledge, innovations are required, and for more original research, we need many more young minds at the frontier. Knowledge is gender neutral, and hence the 21st century offers a great opportunity to level the gender inequity of the last thousand years in India.
The youth require a mental faculty endowed with multi-dimensional intelligence. It is not adequate to foster cognitive intelligence alone — as is being done in India’s educational campuses today — but to also develop the other dimensions of intelligence: emotional, social, moral, spiritual, environmental, and innovational. India’s vast youth population is its demographic potential dividend, but only if equipped and enabled with this seven-dimensional intelligence. The nation must, therefore, structure a national education policy for the youth so that the seven dimensions of intelligence can be manifested in every young man and woman. Only then will the demographic dividend not be wasted. These seven dimensions constitute the ability of a person to live a productive life and for the national good. Hence, a policy for India’s youth has to be structured within the implied parameters of these dimensions.
The first parameter of such a policy is ability empowerment — the development of the seven types of intelligence. The second is a collective mindset about the legacy and future of the nation, which means knowing the correct de-falsified history of India. The third is the commitment to a social contract of rights and obligations such as a fundamental right to quality primary and secondary education, right to work, an obligation to compete for most positions of employment on merit, practice gender equality and place national interests above selfish interests. A national education policy is, therefore, a framework for the comprehensive growth of the nation’s young population, to enable them to be positioned in life for personal advancement as well as contribute to national greatness. India, however, lacks today a properly structured policy for development of its youth. As a result, many young people are led astray by drugs and crime.
1. According to the passage, democracy cannot be sustained in a country without:
a) Economic Development
b) Education and Skill Development
c) Rural and Urban Development
d) Technological Development
2.The synonym for the word, ‘endowed’ is
3.An empowered intellectual leadership involve:
a) Logical Intelligence
b) Interpersonal Intelligence
c) Multi Dimensional Intelligence
d) Intra-personal Intelligence
4.The antonym for the word, ‘cognitive’ is:
5.According to the passage, in a country economic development is driven by:
a) Human Labor
d) Knowledge and Innovations
6.According to the passage, what would be the appropriate synonym for the term ‘Demographic’?
7.The youth of India is being taught to learn which of these dimensions of intelligence?
A. Emotional and Social
B. Social and Moral
D. Environmental and Innovational
a) Only A and B
b) Only B and C
c) Only C and D
d) All of the above
8.The 21st century education system believes in imparting knowledge:
a) In a gender biased way.
b) In a gender neutral manner.
c) On the basis of sex discrimination.
d) On the preferences based on genders.
9.What is required to optimally utilize the demographic dividend of India?
a) An economic development policy for the country.
b) An Industrial policy for the industrial growth.
c) A structured national education policy for the youth.
d) An economic reform for structural change.
10.According to the passage, what would be the appropriate antonym for the word ‘Astray’?
11.On which parameter the national educational policy should be based?
a) Women Empowerment
b) Legal Empowerment
c) Economic Empowerment
d) Ability empowerment
12.As a consequence of lack of structured educational policy, the youth of India is:
a) Unable to receive proper education.
b) Going away from the correct path by indulging in crimes.
c) Going abroad for higher studies.
d) Not able to pay their educational fees.
Answer Key With Explanation:
1. Answer: b)
Explanation: The passage clearly mentions that the democracy cannot be sustained in a country without education and skill development.
2. Answer: b)
Explanation: Both ‘Endowed’ and ‘Bestowed’ means to provide something with a quality.
3. Answer: c)
Explanation: It is clearly stated in the passage that in a democratic country the leadership should be intellectually empowered by a multi-dimensional intelligence.
4. Answer: b)
Explanation: Cognitive means something concerning the mind and ‘Illogical’ is the exact opposite word.
5. Answer: d)
Explanation: The first paragraph clearly states that the world view of economic development has completely changed: it is no longer believed to be driven by human labor, as Karl Marx said, or by capital, as Alfred Marshall stated, but is knowledge-driven.
6. Answer: c)
Explanation: Both ‘Demographic’ and ‘Census’ means population statistics.
7. Answer: d)
Explanation: It has been clearly mentioned in the second paragraph that India’s educational campuses today aims to develop the other dimensions of intelligence in youth which are: emotional, social, moral, spiritual, environmental, and innovational.
8. Answer: b)
Explanation: It has been clearly mentioned in the last line of the first paragraph that knowledge is gender neutral, and hence the 21st century offers a great opportunity to level the gender inequity of the last thousand years in India.
9. Answer: c)
Explanation: It has been clearly mentioned in the second paragraph that the nation must structure a national education policy for the youth so that the seven dimensions of intelligence can be manifested in every young man and woman.
10. Answer: a)
Explanation: Astray means away from the correct path or direction and ‘aligned’ is the exact opposite word.
11. Answer: d)
Explanation: The last paragraph clearly mentions that the first parameter of national educational policy should be ability empowerment — the development of the seven types of intelligence.
12. Answer: b)
Explanation: The last line of the passage clearly states that due to lack of structured educational policy, the youth is going on wrong paths of drugs and crime.