For the Civil Services aspirants the available NIOS readings are much important. The NIOS textbooks contain precise study material available in all major subjects like History, Geography, Political Science, Economy, Accountancy, Business Studies, Sociology Psychology, Environment and Ecology etc. The IAS aspirants need to prefer such textbooks which required less time to cover the whole UPSC IAS syllabus. NIOS textbooks are equally important for UPSC IAS Prelims Exam as well as for IAS Mains Exam.
Most of the Civil Services Aspirants find difficulties to cover the whole syllabus due to unavailability of proper study resource materials consequently they bound to prefer such study materials which may inappropriate in perspective of IAS Exam.
Here, we have provided the NIOS study material for the subject Geography, one of the most important subjects in terms of number of questions asked in IAS Prelims Exam in recent years. The scope and importance of the subject geography is growing year by year because Geography is much associated with the subject like environment and Ecology also.
Module 1: The Study of Geography as a Discipline
Lesson 1. Nature of Geography as a discipline
The proposed course aims at explaining the nature of the subject. It throws light on the importance of geography and describes the nature of geography as a subject. It attempts to enrich knowledge and illustrate basic concepts as well as technical terms which are building blocks of geographic knowledge. Effort, however, has been made to develop the concepts in a graded and sequencial manner and deepen the interest in the subject.
Module 2: Changing Face of the Earth
Lesson 2. Earth's interior and its Material
The earth is the only known planet with developed life in the universe. Like most of the celestial bodies, the earth is spherical in shape. You also know that hot water and molten lava eject out from the earth’s interior. This indicates that the temperature below the earth’s surface is very high. World’s deepest mining is limited only to the depth of less than 5 kilometers.
Lesson 3. Dynamic surface of the earth
In the previous lesson, we have learnt that the interior of the earth is very hot.
Earthquakes and volcanoes are concentrated along a few narrow belts. The type and density of rocks of the crust are variable. The surface features are dynamic in character. This dynamism is due to two forces — endogenetic and exogenetic. Endogenetic forces are those which are caused from below the surface.
Lesson 4. Evolution of Land forms due to internal forces
e live on an unstable earth, the surface of which is uneven. While travelling, we come across a variety of landforms such as mountains, hills, plateaus, plains, cliffs and ravines. We also come across tilted, broken and twisted layers of rocks which are originally deposited in horizontal forms. You have already studied about different types of rocks, their formation and characteristics.
Lesson 5. The work of running water and underground water
In the previous lesson we have learnt that the ultimate result of gradation is to reduce the uneven surface of the earth to a smooth and level surface. These agents produce various relief features over the course of time. Amongst all the agents of gradation, the work of running water (rivers) is by far the most extensive.
Lesson 6. The work of moving ice, wind and sea waves
You have learnt in the previous lesson about the gradational role of running water and underground water. In addition to these two agents, moving ice, wind and sea-waves too are powerful agents of gradation. These three agents too perform the threefold function of erosion, transportation and deposition. In other words, they are removing the weathered material, transporting it from the elevated ground and are depositing the same into low lying areas.
Lesson 7. Major landforms and their economic significance
You have learnt in the previous lesson that the landforms found on the earth’s surface are the result of interplay between internal and external forces. The soft rocks are easily worn down by these forces. While the relatively harder rocks are not so easily worn down. Therefore, rocks have a great influence on the landforms developed in an area.
Module 3: The Domain of the Water on the Earth
Lesson 8. Ocean: sub marine relief and circulation of ocean water
Water is important for life on the earth. It is required for all life processes, such as, cell growth, protein formation, photosynthesis and, absorption of material by plants and animals. There are some living organisms, which can survive without air but none can survive without water. All the water present on the earth makes up the hydrosphere.
Module 4: The Domain of Air on the Earth
Lesson 9. Structure and composition of atmosphere
Earth is a unique planet because the life is found only on this planet. The air has a special place among the conditions necessary for life. The air is a mixture of several gases. The air encompasses the earth from all sides. The air surrounding the Earth is called the atmosphere. The atmosphere is an integral part of our Earth. It is connected with the earth due to the gravitational force of the earth.
Lesson 10. Insolation and temperature
In the previous lesson we have studied that the air surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of different types of gasses, water vapour and dust particles. Atmosphere is essential for survival of plant and animal life. They also require optimum temperature to keep themselves warm and grow.
Lesson 11. Atmospheric pressure and winds
We do not ordinarily think of air as having too much weight. But air has weight and it exerts pressure. Let us take an empty bicycle tube and weight it. Now fill tube with air and weight it again. You will find that the weight of the air filled tube is more than when it was empty. If you go on filling air in the tube a situation comes when the tube bursts.
Lesson 12. Humidity and precipitation
In our previous lesson while discussing the composition of the atmosphere, we noted that water vapour, though a minor component is a very important constituent of the atmosphere. In this lesson, we will study the role of water vapour in producing day to day weather changes.
Lesson 13. Weather and climate
In the preceding three lessons, we have discussed about the temperature, atmospheric pressure, winds and precipitation. These elements of weather have an important effect on our lives. For example the houses we construct, the clothes we wear and the food we prefer mainly depend on weather and climatic conditions. In this lesson, we will study about the difference among weather, season and climate and also the factors affecting climate of a place.
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Module 5: The Domain of Life on the Earth
Lesson 14. Biosphere
We know that our earth is the only planet where life is found. That is why this planet is also known as living planet or ‘sphare’ of ‘life’. This sphere contains those qualities atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere. They all enable the life to exist on this planet. But do you know this is a very small portion of the earth where life exists.
Lesson 15. Biomes
In the previous lesson, you have learnt about the various aspects of biosphere. We have also discussed how various components of biosphere interact as well as complement each other. Energy which reaches from sun is the prime source for various lives on the earth. But, its distribution on the surface of the earth varies because of various reasons which you have already studied in the previous chapters.