Q 1: Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?
Demand: The question asks the candidates to answer three things. First demand is the general economic features of transition from agriculture to industry to services. Second is the reason for India’s economic feature as a distortion of the established features. And the last requirement is of India’s ability to become a developed country without a strong industrial base.
Approach: The answer may be started with the general transition of economic aspects taking the help of Rostow’s model. The next part should explain the reason of India’s transition from Agriculture to Services directly and bypassing Industrial economic development. The concluding remarks must explain the lacuna, benefits and potential of India vis-a-vis such transitions.
Keyword: Rostow model, intensive agriculture, lack of industrial technology and infrastructure, demographic dividend, IT sector, NMIZ
Q 2: While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.
Demand: The question demands three things: 1. Explanation about dropping rate of employability, 2. Missing efforts on account of this declining employability and 3. Solutions depicting the potential of employment opportunities in India in the future.
Approach: The introductory part should include couple of lines explaining demographic dividend followed by dismal picture of falling employment rates. Middle portion of the answer should ponder upon the reason behind such drops. In the last, the answer should be explaining futuristic solutions showing the opportunities and solutions
Keywords: population cohort, lack in capital investment and skill development, jobless growth, education, focus on self employment.
Q 3: There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.
Demand: The question should cater two aspects: 1. State’s APMCs influence on Indian Agricultural development and 2. The relation of such regulatory market mechanisms with food inflation in India.
Approach: The first part of the answer should explain about agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts, gradually shifting and establishing its relations with development of agriculture. The last portion of the answer should elaborate the monopolistic tendencies and corruption in Mandis of state run’s APMCs as prominent reasons for food inflation.
Keywords: APMC model act, contract farming, middle men, perishable items, lack of storage and modern facilities, farmers forced to sell produce withing Mandis.
Q 4: “In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constraints and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?
Demand: The question explicitly asks to explain the answer in three parts: 1. Explanations of Cooperative society as the panacea for credit disbursal in villages, 2. constraints and challenges of financial institutions supplying agricultural finances and 3. Help of technologies in the betterment of credit for rural clients and agriculture.
Approach: With few examples showing the failure of financial institutions and the persistent success of cooperative societies in credit disbursal in rural areas, the first portion can be answered. The next part should enlist the various factors and challenges against financial institutions and the last part must cater to depict the help of technologies like Aadhaar enabled bank accounts, use of BCs etc in credit disbursals.
Keywords: Cooperative societies as historic institution for credit disbursal in India, NPAs, defaulters, illiteracy, lack of last mile connectivity, poor banking penetration, Post offices, Community centres, Aadhaar, internet.
Q 5: The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?
Demands: The question asks for two aspects: 1- introduction of the salient features of Land Acquisition Act. 2- The detrimental effect, the land acquisition act can have on industrial and agriculture sector.
Approach: The answer must start with introducing the prominent features of Land Acquisition act. The next two parts should contain respectively the impact of this act on the industrialization in terms of excessive liability on the industrialist and the lucrative multiple times price, which may make it easy for the agriculture land owner to sell it easily for concretising.
Keywords: 70%-80% consent of the farmers, two or four times market rates, rehabilitation and resettlements, social audit, 5% cap for fertile lands.
Q 6: Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss
Demands: Question asks to answer in two aspects. First, Capitalism, its potential and its side effects and secondly, incorporating capitalism as a theme in India’s development.
Approach: Citing examples of Industrial revolution, colonialism, persistent hegemony of the capitalist west; the success of capitalism should be revealed. The disadvantages in terms of massive inequality and exploitation should be cited into the next part. In the last (almost 50% of answer) India’s developmental prospects on the vehicle of capitalism should be envisioned.
Keywords: Capitalism, Jobless Growth,Demand Supply Equilibrium, Environmenal Concern, Profit Maximisation without Ethical values
Q 7: Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?
Demands: Question has two aspects to deal with. First, the demerit of PPP model should be elaborated in terms of infrastructure project having long gestation period. Second, the solution of such problems is to be enlisted.
Approach: With examples of long duration infrastructure projects, such as ports, bridges and so on, the various prospective problems prone to be generated in the future in terms of liabilities should be presented. As the liabilities of the present will keep on accumulated for the future generations owing to long gestation period of PPP in infrastructure, some of the arrangements like infrastructure bonds, alternative models and privatization must be discussed.
Keywords: Toll, BDOT, infrastructure bonds, EPC models, strategic divestments, sustainable development, information sharing, revenue sharing, conformity to the labour laws
Q 8: National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard.
Demands: The demand of the question basically revolves around the National Urban Policy of Urban Development ministry. The policy is to be critically analysed vis-a-vis its achievement, challenges and various plans of the government.
Approach: The answer must be handled in perspective of public transport. The need of the hour is to emphasise more on the movement of public transport and its facilitation; whereas, the government makes attempt for smoothening the roads and facilitation of vehicles, not necessarily the public transports.
Keywords: BRT corridors, Metro, Vehicular population, high automobile taxes, widening of roads and expressways
Q 9: Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now said to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?
Demands: The question needs to be answered in two parts. The first being, the summary of the present days’ debate on FDI on defence, and the second being, its futuristic effects and influence on defence sector and also on Indian economy.
Approach: The answer should start from the present day’s FDI status and the precise debate to enhance the limit. The next part should be elaborated further in two parts, i.e. how will the enhancing of FDI impact defence sector in India, in terms of strategies, technology transfer and so on; and what impact it can have on the economy in Indian perspective in terms of CAD, BOP, employment etc.
Keywords: Joint Production, indigenization, technology transfer, India as the world’s largest arms importer, domestic production, falling import bill, Strategic Information Sharing, Quality and Cost Control Issues
Q 10: Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as our business operations, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumer oriented. Critically comment.
Demands: The theme of the question demands the deep analysis of falling innovations and researches in Indian Universities of the contemporary times. This however should be linked the Universities’ tendencies to cater to present day’s consumerist approach in providing mostly the professional courses.
Approach: The answer must start with introducing scientific researches, business operations, professional courses and consumer orientation. The latter half of the answer should deal with the reasons, causes, factors, consequences and result of such inclinations of universities of the day.
Keywords: Imitating west, increase in employability due to professional courses, protracted study and gestation periods in traditional academics, Low remuneration in Universities, Private Universities, Deemed Universities.
Q 11: Can overuse and the availability of antibiotics without doctor’s prescription, the contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved.
Demands: The question demands the causes and factors responsible for drug-resistant diseases in India. Secondly, it also asks for the possible solutions, procedure and mechanisms to contain such detrimental diseases.
Approaches: The answer must be started with introducing drug-resistant diseases, its causes and implications. In the next part, the relations of such diseases with haphazard intake of antibiotics and other drugs should be established. In the last part, various sanguine measures like stringent drug selling policies, awareness programs, trained pharmacist etc should be discussed with the related issues involved.
Keywords: NDM, 4th generational drug resistant diseases, Carbapene, Illiterate and uneducated patients and pharmacists, corruption.
Q 12: In a globalised world, intellectual property rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms – copyrights, patents and trade secrets.
Demands: The question demands the detailed discussions on copyrights, patents and trade secrets so that their differences become clear. However, an introduction to IPR and related litigations is also demanded in the beginning.
Approaches: An introductory part should be devoted to discuss IPR, its globalisational aspects and related litigations. In the next three parts respectively, the features and parameters of copyrights, patents and trade secrets must be discussed succinctly.
Keywords: WTO, IPR, WIPO, literary works, innovatory processes and products, trade related secret strategies.
Q 13: Should the pursuit of carbon credit and clean development mechanism set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.
Demands: The question is demanding two aspects with respect to carbon credits and clean development mechanism under UNFCCC. The first needs to be answered with its existence per se; whereas the second needs to be answered with respect to India’s energy needs.
Approach: The answer must explain both the aspects equally. Introduction should start with explaining carbon credit and clean development mechanism under UNFCCC followed by the persistent slide in value of carbon credit and its implications which may prove detrimental to its very existence. India has received massive help under the ambit of clean development mechanism; hence the impact of pros and cons of dismantling such mechanisms on Indi’s energy needs should be discussed.
Keywords: CDM, JI, Carbon credits, developing and non-annex countries, Kyoto Protocol, global warming, energy deficiency, carbon exchange markets
Q 14: Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.
Demands: Though the question’s primary aim is to ask for the preparedness to deal with drought as a national disaster, but the way the question starts give ample indication to mention the cause and consequences of drought, the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority and the situations during La Nina and El Nino.
Approach: The introductory part should present and introduce drought as a national disaster, extent of its impact on vulnerable sections. Few lines should be followed mentioning the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority. The last 40% of the answer must enlist the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in the country.
Keywords: Physiological drought, hydrological drought, malnutrition, tropical diseases, hunger, Climate resilient agriculture, smart agriculture, linking of rivers
Q 15: Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.
Demands: The question demands the EIA of coal-fired thermal plants located at pitheads. However, the significance of EIA studies and its increasing relevance also need to be discussed.
Approach: Environmental impact assessment studies should be explained in the context of its relation to the initiation of any projects. The major part of the answer must deal with the EIA of coal-fired thermal plants located at pitheads
Keywords: Disturbances to local flora and fauna, collapse of pitheads, pollution of local aquifers, massive air pollution.
Q 16: The diverse nature of India as a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which has been in her neighborhood. Discuss along with the strategies to be adopted to counter this environment.
Demands: The question demands three aspects to be answered. First, India as multi-religious and multi-ethnic society; second the radicalism in the neighborhood and its impact on India and third, the strategies India must adopt to counter such radicalism.
Approach: The answer should start with highlighting diversity of India in terms of religion and ethnicity. Different aspects of radicalism especially in Pakistan along with Bangladesh and Afghanistan should form the next part of the answer. The major part of the answer must enlist different types of strategies; India should take to contain such radicalism to maintain peace and harmony within the diverse India.
Keyboards: Salient features of Indian society, religious fanaticism and extremism, sectarian violence, Education, employment, WHAM, Secularism, institutional neutrality.
Q 17: International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive severity over the airspace above the territory. What do you understand by airspace? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggests ways to contain the threat.
Demands: The question contains four subparts. 1. Discussion about the airspace, 2. Implications of the space above airspace (what are these, if it is sovereign etc), 3. Challenges of having airspace laws and 4. Ways to contain threat from non-state agencies and terrorists in light of such laws.
Approaches: The first part of the answer should describe about the airspace, its features, characteristics, laws, regulations etc. The second part of the answer should define the space above air space, their control and sovereignty and the last part must discuss the various parameters, challenges, threats of airspace and the space above it.
Keywords: ADIZ, ATC, IAF, anti-Ballistic Missiles, cooperation with neighbors, international conventions
Q 18: How illegal transborder migration does pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bring out the factors which give impetus to such migration.
Demands: The question is straight forward and seeks the answer about transborder illegal migrations. The two aspects are the threats caused due to this and the factors acting as its catalyst. The second aspect is to enlist the ways and measures to contain this
Approach: The answer must start with the present and the past situations of transborder migration. The reason and catalysts for such easy migrations must be mentioned too. The answer should finish with the strategies to deal with this on sustainable basis.
Keywords: Bangladesh, Myanmar, Porous borders, Insurgencies, Poverty in the neighborhood, fencing, bilateral agreements
Q 19: In 2012, the longitudinal marking of the high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65° East to 78° east in the Arabian Sea by International Maritime organisation. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns?
Demands: The question asks for the relation between the decision of International Maritime Organisation and the cause of worry for India. The question has been asked in relation to the Italian marine shooting case.
Approach: The answer should start with identifying the regions of given latitudes, which has moved very closer to Kerala’s coast. The next part must highlight the aspect of movement of the cargo and other ships very close to India’s territorial waters. The very danger of avoiding pirates may prove to be a curse for India’s maritime security should be dealt with properly.
Keywords: Arabian Sea, Somali Pirates, Coast guards, International maritime route, fishermen
Q 20: China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What threat does it dispose for India’s security? Critically examine.
Demands: The question needs to be taken care of in two parts; first, furnishing the details of China and Pakistan agreement for development of economic corridor and the second it’s various implications for India’s security, strategic interests and so on.
Approach: The answer should start with enlisting various agreements between China and Pakistan and details of economic corridor. The next and the major portion of the answer should cater the impact of economic corridor on India, its internal security, strategic vulnerabilities and so on.
Keywords: Gwadar, Xinxiang, Optical fibre, Gilgit-Baltistan, enhancement in the accessibility of Azad Kashmir, encirclement of India in the northwest.