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IAS Prelims Exam : Art and Culture : INDIAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Mar 1, 2016 15:19 IST

    Q.1. With reference condition of women in Rig Veda Which of the following is/are true?

    1. Women could attend assemblies.
    2. Widow remarriage was practised.
    3. It was patriarchal society, the birth of son was wished again and again.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: In Rig-Veda women could attend assemblies. They could offer scarifies along with their husbands. In Rig Veda no desire was expressed for daughters. The practice of levirate and widow remarriage is also noticed. There are no examples of child marriage.

    Q.2. Which of the following is/are true about social divisions of Rig Veda?

    1. All the four divisions of Varna system was well established.
    2. Social differentiation based on occupation started in Rig Veda
    3. Society was egalitarian.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: The fourth division called shudras appeared toward end of Rig Veda period. In the age of Rig Veda differentiation based on occupation had started. Society was tribal and largely egalitarian.

    Q.3. Which of the following is/are true about god  and mode of worship in Rig Veda period?

    1. The dominant made of worship was through recitation of prayers and offering of sacrifices.
    2. Female divinities were prominent along with male gods.
    3. They worshipped god for spiritual uplift.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: But in Rig Veda times sacrifices was not accompanied by ritual/sacrificial formulae. They did not worship gods for their spiritual uplift or for ending miseries of existence. In patriarchal setup of period the male gods were far more important than the female gods.

    Q. 4. Which of the following is/are true about social organisation in later Vedic period?

    1. Institution of gotra appeared in later Vedic times
    2. Varna distinctions had not advanced
    3. Women were sub ordinate to men.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation:  In later Vedic period time shudras were allowed to participate in several public rituals connected with coronation of king. Therefore it can be understood Varna distinctions had not advanced very far. Ordinarily women were thought to be inferior and subordinate to men.

    Q.5. Which of the following is/are true about gods and made of worship of later Vedic period?

    1. Signs of idolatry appeared in later Vedic period.
    2. Some social orders had their own deities.
    3. Cult of sacrifice was accompanied by rituals and formulae.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Pushan was regarded as god of shudras. Vishnu was conceived as preserver and protector of the people. Sacrificial formulae were invented, adopted and elaborated by priests called Brahmans.

    Q.6. Which of the following changes happened in later Vedic period?

    1. Tribal society was broken into Varna divided society.
    2. Wars were fought for territorial Kingdoms.
    3. Predominantly pastoral society transformed into agricultural society.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Though broken in Varna divided society, Varna distinctions could not be carried too far. Wars were fought for both cattles and territorial Kingdoms. The predominately pastoral society of early Vedic times had become agricultural.

    Q.7. With reference to  social practices of Mauryan empire, Which of the following is/are true?

    1. Ashoka was antibrahmanical.
    2. Superfluous rituals performed by women was encouraged.
    3. Ashoka was not against Vedic practices.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. None

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Ashoka adopted tolerant policy and asked the people to respect even the Brahmans.  But he prohibited killing of animals and birds and derided superfluous rituals performed by women.
     
    Q.8. With reference to  social organisation of Satavahanas  Which of the following is/are true?

    1. Satavahanas were against the four fold Varna systems.
    2. Satavahanas were tribe of Deccan.
    3. Though ruling family of Satavahanas was patriarchal, Satavahanas show traces of matrilineal structure.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Gautamiputra satakarni claims to have established the four fold Varna system. Originally seem to have been tribe of Deccan. But they were brahmanized. They were the first to make land grants to Brahmanas.

    Q.9. Consider the following statements regarding social classes in deep south.

    1. Ruling class called ‘arasar’ had marriage relations with fourth caste.
    2. In the sangam age social inequalities was well established.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation:  Ruling class called ‘arasar’ had marriage relations with Vellalas who formed the fourth caste. Rich lived in houses of brick and mortar, the poor in huts and humbler structures which shows sharp inequalities in sangam age.

    Q.10. Which of the following is/are true about social developments in Gupta period?

    1. Supremacy of Brahmana was reduced to certain extent.
    2. Women and shudras were now permitted to listen to Ramayana.
    3. Shudras economic status improved in Gupta period.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Land grants to the brahmanas on a large scale suggest that the brahmana supremacy continued in Gupta times. From 7th century shudras were represented as agriculturists. In earlier period they always appeared as servants, slaves and agricultural labourers working for 3 higher Varnas.

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