NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 - Nationalism in India
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NCERT Solutions Class 10
Social Science - History
Chapter 2: Nationalism in India
Question 1. Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(a) Growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement because:
- Colonisation affected people’s freedom.
- The sense of oppression and exploitation became a common bond for people of different groups which resulted in the growth of nationalist ideals.
- People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
(b) The First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India in the following ways:
- During the First World War, the British army forcibly recruited people from the rural areas of India.
- To finance the defence expenditure, custom duties were raised and income taxes were imposed.
- During 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India which resulted in acute food shortages. All this caused extensive anger and opposition against the British colonial rule, and the national movement of India headed towards a stronger and more definitive direction.
(c) Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act due to the following reasons:
- The Rowlatt Act was passed hurriedly through the Imperial Legislative Council despite opposition from Indian members.
- It gave the government autocratic powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without a trial for two years.
- It was clearly injustice and oppressive for Indians..
(d) Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to the following reasons:
- The movement was turning violent at few places. In 1922, at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur, a peaceful demonstration turned into a violent clash in which more than 20 policemen were killed.
- Gandhiji felt that the Safyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
- Within the Congress, some leaders were tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils.
Question 2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
Answer: The idea of satyagraha implies a unique method of mass agitation that emphasises the power of truth and the need to search the truth. It supports the belief that if the cause is true and the struggle is against injustice, then there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor. In this, people-including the oppressors have to be persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, truth was bound to be victorious.
Question 3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre- On 13th April, 1919, a public meeting was announced, at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar to protest against the Rowlatt Act. The people were allowed to assemble there. Thousands of people gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. Suddenly, General Dyer marched there with armoured troops. They blocked the exit points from the Bagh and opened fire upon the innocent citizens. Hundreds of innocent people including women and children were killed on this day. Dyer’s purpose in doing so was to ‘produce a moral effect’ and terrorise the Satyagrahis. This massacre of innocent people in thousands led to large scale strikes, clashes with police and attacks on government buildings by the enraged Indian people.
(b) The Simon Commission was appointed in India in 1928. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. But nationalists in India opposed the Commission because it had no Indian member. The Congress and the Muslim League jointly demonstrated against it. When the Simon Commission arrived in India, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”.
Question 4: Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
Answer: Comparison of the images of Bharat Mata with the image of Germania:
- The image of Germania symbolises the German nation whereas the image of Bharat Mata represents the Indian nation.
- The image of Bharat Mata is different from that of Germania in the sense that former reflects the religious basis of its making.
- The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is bestowed with learning, food, clothing and some ascetic quality also. In another painting, we find Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. Germania as a female figure is standing against a background of the tricolour fabric of the national flag. She is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Question 1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Answer: The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, teachers and headmasters, students, peasants, tribals and workers.
- Peasants, tribals and workers joined the movement with hopes of self-emancipation. Peasants hoped that they would be saved from the oppressive landlords, high taxes taken by the colonial government.
- Plantation workers, on the other hand, desired freedom to move about and get land in their own villages.
- The middle class joined the movement because the boycott of foreign goods would make the sale of their textiles and handlooms go up.
Question 2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Answer: The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because:
- Gandhiji met a large number of commoners during the march and he taught them the true meaning of swaraj and non-violence.
- It was the first time that Indian leaders decided to violate law. People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, but also to break colonial laws.
- Thousands of Indians in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of the government salt factories. With this, Gandhiji set forth an example to the whole nation of how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner.
- People also started boycotting foreign cloth. Peasants refused to pay revenue and ‘chaukidari taxes’. In many places people started going into the reserved forests by violating forest laws to collect wood and graze cattle.
- Worried by the development, the colonial government started arresting the Congress leaders, one by one. This led to violent clashes in many places.
- After Gandhi ji got arrested, some industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings and many other structures that symbolised the British rule.
- In an outcome of the movement, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Irwin on 5th March, 1931. By this Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London and the government agreed to release the political prisoners.
Question 3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Answer: A large number of women participated in large the Civil Disobedience Movement which was called by Gandhiji. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picked foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many of them were put to jail by the police. Women at that time saw national service as a sacred duty.
Question 4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Answer: Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because of differences in their opinion.
- Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They believed that only political empowerment would resolve their social backwardness whereas Gandhiji believed that separate electorates would further slow down the process of their integration into society.
- The Muslim leaders on the other and asked for separate electorates to safeguard the political interests of the Muslims. In their opinion, the majority of the people were Hindus, and so in case of joint electorates, the Muslims would have little chance of winning the seats. As such, they would always be at the mercy of the Hindus.
- The Congress leaders oSpposed the policy of the British Government in provoking different groups of people in demanding separate electorate. They knew well that it was the British Government's conspiracy to encourage different people to ask for separate electorates because such a policy would weaken the national movement, and prolong Britisher's stay in India. The Congress leaders were one and all in favour of joint electorates.
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