Read the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 10 - Law and Social Justice to get the most accurate answers that are easy to understand and effective to clear all your doubts. You will find here the best-explained answers for the questions given in exercises of chapter 10 of the latest NCERT Book for Class 8 Civics which has been published exclusively for the current academic year. Here, you can read and download the questions and answers in PDF format.
Check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 10 - Law and Social Justice:
1. Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Students should attempt this question by themselves.
2. What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Foreign companies gain many advantages in setting up production in India. These are:
- Availability of cheap labour.
- Longer hours of work at low wages.
- Minimum additional expenses such as for housing facilities for workers.
- Cost cutting by including lower working conditions that consist of lower safety measures..
Thus, foreign companies can save costs and earn higher profits in India.
3. Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did get a complete justice. This tragedy was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the factory management. The government of India represented the people to legally claim compensation for the affected people and demanded 3 billion dollar as a compensation. But the company paid only 470 million dollars. Even today, after 36 years of catastrophe, people are still seeking justice. Though the financial compensation for the victims’ families was adequate, many of them are fighting for safe drinking water, healthcare facilities and jobs.
4. What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Law enforcement means the implementation of law. Laws passed by the government have to be enforced so that the citizens can benefit from the same.
The government is responsible for the enforcement of laws.
Enforcement is important to protect the rights of the citizens. Enforcement is even more important when the law seeks to protect the weak from the strong. It is also necessary to control the activities of individuals or private companies so as to ensure a safe working environment and complete social justice.
5. How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Laws ensure that markets work in a fair manner by protecting the people from unfair practices. The two examples are:
- Child Labour Prevention Act: This law states that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to any employment including domestic help.
- Right against Exploitation: This law states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.
The government has passed laws to ensures that workers are not exploited and made to over-work by companies hiring them. It also keeps a check on the market prices of the essential products such as kerosene, food grain, sugar, etc.
6. Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Students should attempt this question by themselves.
7. Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
The various roles of the government that we have read in this unit are:
- Fixing minimum wages for workers and revising it from time to time.
- Enforcement of laws regarding safety at workplace.
- Enforcement of laws against child labour.
- Enforcement of laws regarding safety of environment.
- Protecting the interests of consumers in the market.
8. What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
The various sources of environment pollution in our area are as follows:
- Pollution of air: Exhaust from factories and vehicles.
- Pollution of water: Dumping of chemical fertilizers and garbage from factories, farms and houses in water bodies.
- Pollution of Soil: Excessive use of pesticides and fertilisers, disposal of domestic and industrial garbage.
Steps taken to reduce pollution are:
- Stop the misuse or overuse of resources.
- Taking strict action against the practices that cause environmental pollutions like use of plastic bags, disposal of all type of wastes and harmful emissions from industries.
- Promoting the use of CNG as fuel in vehicles.
- Encourage recycling of used materials.
9. How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
The environment was treated as a ‘free entity’ in the earlier days. There was no check on the pollution caused by the various industries. The government paid no attention to safeguard the environment. Very few laws were implemented to protect and conserve the environment.
There has been a tremendous change in perception. Now, government is more alert and active towards conserving the nature. It has introduced various laws and acts to protect and conserve the environment. The most recent one is Swachh Bahrat Abhiyan. Several judgements have been given to uphold the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the fundamental right to life. New laws have been imposed by the government according to which the polluter will be held accountable for the damage done to the environment and shall be liable to punishment.
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