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Reading Comprehension for IBPS PO, IPPB Exam 2016: Good monsoon fills reservoirs

Oct 18, 2016 15:50 IST

    In the English section of any banking exam you will find passages taken from leading dailies in English such as The Times of India, The Hindu, The Economic Times, The Business Standard etc. To make you all prepared for that, the banking team of Jagranjosh.com, the best ever platform for banking preparation, is bringing to you passages from these papers and questions on those in the recent pattern so that guide you in your preparation. This is a passage from The Business Standard (dated October 11, 2016) for Reading Comprehension questions. Go through it to give your preparation a boost.

    Question (1-10): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Some words / phrases are printed in bold in the passage in order to help you locate them while answering some of the questions asked.

    The southwest monsoon season (June to September) across the country in 2016 was 97 per cent of the long period average (LPA). Although it fell short of predictions by the weather office, this was the first normal monsoon in the country since 2013.

    If the rainfall is between 96 and 104 per cent of the LPA, it is considered normal. LPA is the average rainfall the country has received since the past 50 years starting from 1951, which is estimated to be 887 cm.  Around 85 per cent of the country’s geographical area received normal or excess rains this season. The deficient 15 per cent area fell in Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab and also parts of Gujarat.

    For the fourth straight year, Karnataka declared drought this year too, in around half of the state.
    The good rains also filled up the reservoirs. At the end of September, water levels in 91-odd reservoirs were 117 billion cubic metres. This was 74 per cent of their full capacity against 122 per cent last year and 97 per cent of the average storage of the past 10 years.

    A normal monsoon is expected to lift the gloom surrounding the rural sector with farm wages and rural demand likely to increase.
    According to some reports, farm wages rose 5.3 per cent in July and these could go up further as the monsoon season culminates and the harvest time begins. An increase in farm wages should boost rural consumption of all items — be it consumer durables, gold, or vehicles.

    Of the total 36 meteorological sub-divisions, 23 sub-divisions constituting 72 per cent of the total area of the country received normal rainfall and four sub-divisions received excess rainfall (13 per cent of the total area) during the season.
    However, nine sub-divisions constituting 15 per cent of the total area of the country received deficient seasonal rainfall. Most of these nine sub-divisions fall under the big states.

    The India Meteorological Department (IMD), which had forecast the rains to be ‘above normal’ at 106 per cent of the LPA with a model error of plus and minus four per cent, got its predictions wrong for the third time in the past 10 years. This was mainly due to miscalculation over the onset of the La Nina weather phenomenon, and unfavorable Indian Ocean Dipole and Madden Julian Oscillation weather phenomena.

    According to IMD, the seasonal rainfall over the four regions of North-West India comprising Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan was around 95 per cent of the LPA, while that over central India was 106 per cent of the LPA.

    Rains over  Southern Peninsular India — Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala — was 92 per cent of LPA, while that over East and North-East India was 89 per cent of the 50-year average. North-West India received 584.2 mm of rainfall against a normal of 615.1 mm, while Central India got 1,034.1 mm of showers against a normal of 875.3 mm.

    Southern Peninsular India received 661.5 mm of rainfall during the four-month season against a normal of 715.6 mm, while East and North-East India comprising West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Assam and the north-eastern states received 1,281.5 mm of rainfall against a normal of 1,437.8 mm.
    Although normal in many parts of the country, the total quantum of rains was less than normal. But, a fairly even distribution of rains compensated for the loss.

    In June, India received rains equivalent to 89 per cent of the LPA, which rose to 107 per cent the next month, again coming down to 91 per cent in August, and 97 per cent in September.

    The showers were more or less well distributed throughout the year. This was also the prime reason behind the expected bumper Kharif harvest.

    This year’s southwest monsoon had advanced into the South Andaman Sea and Nicobar Islands on May 18, two days ahead of schedule. Thereafter, its progress was sluggish. That’s why it reached the Indian mainland off the Kerala coast only on June 8, after a week’s delay.

    The monsoon covered the entire country by July 13 — two days ahead of schedule. The rains started withdrawing from west Rajasthan on September 15 — a delay of two weeks — and by October 10, it had withdrawn from most parts of North-West India.

    The withdrawal has been delayed, which should augur well for the coming rabi crop as it would leave good residual moisture in the soil for a bumper harvest. It has withdrawn from most parts of Northwest India as on October 10. Good rains in July and part of August pushed India’s Kharif sowing to record highs with the area under pulses leading the way with a 30 per cent rise in acreage.

    The Centre, according to its first advanced estimate released a few days ago, expects 2016 Kharif food grains production to be at a record high of 135 million tonnes – 11 million tonnes more than last year’s with pulses production increasing to 8.75 million tonnes against 5.54 million tonnes last year.

    The bumper Kharif harvest should bring down food inflation in the coming months. However, this might not be the case for crops like Chana. The good rains also filled up the reservoirs. At the end of September, water levels in 91-odd reservoirs were 117 billion cubic metres. This was 74 per cent of their full capacity against 122 per cent last year and 97 per cent of the average storage of the past 10 years.

    1. Which among the following is true regarding long period average regarding rainfall in a country?

    1. It is the average of the total rainfall received by the country in the last 50 years or so
    2. It starts counting the years from which rainfall is calculated as 1952
    3. If the rainfall is 95 percent of the long period average of a country, it is considered normal rainfall
    4. Both (1) and (2)
    5. All the above

    Solution: Option (4)

    Explanation: According to the passage, LPA is considered as the long time average of rainfall in a country over a period of last 50 years starting from 1951. If the actual rainfall in a country in a given year is between 96 percent and 104 percent of the LPA for that country, it is called normal rainfall. These statements make option (4) the right choice among the given options.

    2. Which among the following is true regarding the actual rainfall in India in the current year?

    1. The monsoon in the year 2016 is the first normal monsoon in our country in the last 5 years
    2. The monsoon is not same for all the areas in our country as there is difference between the amounts of rainfall received in various areas of the country
    3. The western part of the country is the only area where there has been deficient rainfall in the current year
    4. Both (1) and (2)
    5. All the above

    Solution: Option (2)

    Explanation: According to the given passage, monsoon in the current year is the first normal monsoon since 2013 and that is only 3 years ago and not 5 years. The rainfall received in the various parts of the country is not the same and there have been areas where there has been deficient rainfall. There has been deficient rainfall in parts of Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka etc and that proves not only the western part of the country had deficient rainfall. These make only option (2) true among the given options.

    3. Which among the following is not true according to the information given in the passage?

    1. In the current year, the rainfall received in the country is less than 100 percent of the long period average of rainfall in our country
    2. In the current year, more than 70 percent areas of the country have got enough rainfall
    3. The deficient rainfall areas constitute more than 20 percent of the total geographical area of the country
    4. Both (1) and (2)
    5. All the above

    Solution: Option (5)

    Explanation: According to the given passage, the rainfall received in the country is 97 percent of the long period average of rainfall received in the country from June to September till now and the total area that has received normal rainfall is around 85 percent of the total geographical area of the country whereas only 15 percent of the total geographical area has not received enough rainfall in the current year. These make option (5) the right choice among the given options.

    4. Which among the following best describes that the country received normal rainfall in a given year?

    1. The total rainfall received in a year is around 98 percent of the total long period average of rainfall received in the country
    2. The total rainfall received in the country is spread all over the country in various areas
    3. The total rainfall in the country is not more than 10 percent of the previous year’s total rainfall in the country
    4. The total rainfall received in the country is spread across all the months of monsoon in the country
    5. Other than those given in options

    Solution: Option (1)

    Explanation: In order to monsoon becoming normal in a country, the total rainfall received in the country should be between 96 percent and 104 percent of the total long period average rainfall in the country. Long Period Average rainfall is calculated based on the average of total rainfall received in the country over the period of last 50 years starting from 1951. This makes option (1) the right choice among the given options.

    5. Which among the following is true regarding the impact of good monsoon on Indian agriculture?

    1. The production of Kharif crops in the country has already more than doubled in the country because of good monsoon as released by the data by central government
    2. The production of Kharif crops increased in the country in some parts whereas for other parts it has not seen any change
    3. The main change is in the production of pulses which has trebled as per the data released by the central government
    4. Both (1) and (3)
    5. None of the above

    Solution: Option (5)

    Explanation: There has been good monsoon in the country in the current year from June to September and that is why Kharif crops production has seen a rise in the current year. But the total production has not been confirmed by the central government as only an estimated production has been released by the central government. These makes option (5) the right choice among the given options.

    6. Which among the following best explains the state of reservoirs in the country after the monsoon in the country?

    1. The water level in the reservoirs is at a record high in the current year because of unexpected good monsoon in the current year
    2. The water level in various reservoirs of the country is more than 80 percent of the full capacity of the reservoirs
    3. India has more than 50 odd reservoirs in the country and these are mainly useful for irrigation purposes, drinking water etc
    4. Both (1) and (3)
    5. All the above

    Solution: Option (4)

    Explanation: According to the given passage, water level in 91-odd reservoirs is at a record high of 117 billion cubic metres and that is because India has received an extraordinarily good monsoon this year after 2013. The reservoirs are 74 percent full of their total capacity whereas they are already 97 percent of the total storage in them as per the average of the last 10 years. These make option (4) the right choice among the given options.

    7. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘gloom’ as used in the passage?

    1. Mortuary
    2. Morbidity
    3. Assistant
    4. Salinity
    5. Other than those given in options

    Solution: Option (2)

    Explanation: According to the given context, the given word has been used to indicate the deplorable condition of the rural economy of the country because of deficient rainfall in the country in the recent years. That makes option (2) the right choice among the given options as the synonym of the given word.

    8. Which among the following is similar in meaning to the word ‘compensated’ as used in the passage?

    1. Said up
    2. Paid up
    3. Made of
    4. Satisfied
    5. Other than those given in options

    Solution: Option (2)

    Explanation: According to the given context, the given word has been used to indicate that the rainfall in almost all the areas of the country except a few paid up for the losses in the last few years because of deficient rainfall. This makes option (2) the right choice among the given options.

    9. Which among the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘augur’ as used in the passage?

    1. Describe
    2. Recite
    3. Ascend
    4. Utilize
    5. Other than those given in options

    Solution: Option (1)

    Explanation: According to the given passage, the word has been used to imply that the good monsoon in the country should do well to the upcoming rabi crop season as well but that is only a prediction as it is yet to be seen practically. This makes option (1) the right choice as the opposite since it means to tell the things that have already taken place, among the given options.

    10. Which among the following is opposite in meaning to the word ‘prime’ as used in the passage?

    1. Pure
    2. Sacred
    3. Holy
    4. Scheduled
    5. Secondary

    Solution: Option (5)

    Explanation: According to the given context, the word has been used to indicate that it is the main reason behind something. This makes option (5) the right choice among the given options since it means that something is not the main reason behind something.

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