Data Interpretation (DI) is an important section asked in almost every competitive exam. It is one of the most scoring topics in banking examination. In SBI PO examination a large number of problems are asked on DI. It is noticed that problems asked SBI PO prelims examination 2015 are not very difficult but they are time consuming if individual is not aware of the short tricks. Candidates can attain expertise in this type of questions through adequate practice.
What is Data Interpretation?
Data Interpretation is the act of transforming data with an objective of draw out useful information and facilitating conclusion on the basis of given data.
To collect information from all the amount of data it needs to be presented in a lucid and concise manner. Therefore we use data representation to draw out useful information quickly as it immediately provides the overall scenario.
Here the banking team of Jagran josh has come up with some questions of DI based on the latest pattern that is expected in SBI PO prelims 2016.
TABLE CHART:
It is the most fundamental way of representing data. In order to avoid some heads again and again, we make tables, consisting of horizontal lines called rows and vertical lines called columns with distinctive heads, known as captions. Units of measurements are given along with the captions.
Example:
The table given below shows the population, literates and illiterates (in thousands) and the percentage of literacy in 3 states, in a year:
State |
Population |
Literates |
Illiterates |
Percentage of literacy |
---|---|---|---|---|
Madras |
49342 |
6421 |
…………….. |
…………………… |
Bombay |
……………. |
4068 |
16790 |
…………………….. |
Bengal |
60314 |
…………… |
…………… |
16.1 |
After reading the table, mark a tick (√) against the correct answer in each question given below and hence complete the table.
1.) Percentage of literacy in Madras is
(a) 14.9% (b) 13.01% (c) 12.61% (d) 15.04%
2.) Percentage of literacy in Bombay is
(a) 19.5% (b) 16.7% (c) 18.3% (d) 14.6%
3.) Number of literates in Bengal(in thousands) is:
(a) 50599 (b) 9715 (c) 76865 (d) 9475
Solution:
1.) (b) percentage of literacy in Madras = (6421/49342)×100% = 13.01%
2.) (a) Population of Bombay = (4068+16790) thousands = 20858 thousands.
Therefore, percentage of literacy in Bombay = (4068/20858)×100% = 19.5%
3.) (b) Number of literates in Bengal =(16.1/100)×60314 = 9715 thousands
BAR CHART:
In a bar diagram, information is presented by means of rectangles, whose lengths indicate the quantity of the variable which the bar is representing. The following points are important:
1.) All bars are in the form of rectangles and the width of the bars is uniform throughout the diagram.
2.) The height of each bar is proportional to the frequency of the variable.
3.) The gap between various bars is uniform.
4.) The base line of all the bars is the same.
5.) The bars can be either horizontal or vertical depending on the space available.
Example:
The expenditure of a company under different heads (in thousands of rupees) is given below:
Head |
Expenditure (in thousands of rupees) |
---|---|
Salary of employees |
400 |
Travelling allowance (TA) |
100 |
Rent |
150 |
Equipment |
200 |
Miscellaneous |
300 |
Draw a bar chart to depict the above data.
Example:
The following bar diagram represents the percentages of total expenditure incurred by a state during the years 1981- 90 for different items. In each bar the blue portion stands for the expenditure during the first five years and the red portion stands for the next five years.
Study the graph and answer questions 1-5.
1.) Which of the items listed below accounts for the maximum expenditure during the year 1981 to 1985?
(a) Communication (b) education (c) health (d) housing
2.) Which of the items listed below accounts for the maximum expenditure during 1986 to 1990?
(a) Agriculture (b) communication (c) education (d) health
3.) The amount of expenditure on Agriculture is approximately what proportion of that on industry during the year 1986-90?
(a) 1/5 (b) ¼ (c) 1/3 (d) data inadequate
4.) If the total expenditure on housing is Rs. 610 crores during 1981-85, the total expenditure on industry during the same period would (approximately)
(a) Rs 2440 crores (b) Rs 1220 crores (c) Rs 4620 crores (d) none of these
5.) Out of every 10,000 rupees spent during 1981-90 approximately, how much was spent during the years 1981-85 on housing?
(a) Rs 1400 (b) Rs 700 (c) Rs 1000 (d) Rs 2800
Answer:
1.) (d) out of the items listed in the question, clearly maximum expenditure during 1981-85 is on housing.
2.) (a) out of the items listed in the question, clearly the maximum expenditure during 1986-90 is on agriculture.
3.) (a) expenditure on agriculture during 1986 - 90 = (15-10)% of total expenditure = 5x/100 = x/20
Expenditure on industry during 1986-90 = (52.5-27.5)% of total expenditure = 25x/100 =x/4.
Required ratio = x/20: x/4 = 1:5
4.) (d) Expenditure on housing during 1981-85 = 10% of total expenditure.
Let the total expenditure be Rs.x.
Then, 105 of x = 610 crores or 10x/100 =610 crores x = 6100 crores total expenditure on industry during 1981-85 = 25% of 6100 crores = Rs 1525 crores.
5.) (c) 20% of total expenditure during 1981-90 was spent on housing.
Expenditure on housing during 1981-90 for a total expenditure of Rs 10000 = (20×10000/100) = Rs 2000
Ratio of expenditure on housing during 1981-85 and that during 1986-90 = 10%/(20-10)% = 1/1
Expenditure on housing during 1981-85 = Rs 1000
PIE DIAGRAM:
In a pie chart, the values of different components of a frequency distribution are represented by the sectors of a circle. These sectors are so constructed that the area of each sector is proportional to the corresponding value of the component.
Since the sum of all the central angles is 360 degrees, we have
Example: The following pie diagram shows the expenditure incurred on the preparation of a book by a publisher, under various heads.
A: Paper 20, B: Printing 25%, C: Binding, Canvassing, Designing etc 30%
D: Miscellaneous 10% E: Royalty 15%
Study the diagram carefully and answer the questions 1-5:
1.) What is the angle of pie diagram showing the expenditure incurred on paying the royalty?
(a) 15 degrees (b) 24 degrees (c) 48 degrees (d) 54 degrees
2.) The marked price of a book is 20% more than the C.P. If the marked price of the book be Rs 30, what is the cost of paper used in a single copy of the book?
(a) Rs 6 (b) Rs 5 (c) Rs 4.50 (d) Rs 6.50
3.) Which two expenditures together will form an angle of 108 degrees at the centre of the pie diagram:
(a) A and E (b) B and E (c) A and D (d) D and E
4.) If the difference between two expenditures be represented by 18 degrees in the pie-diagram, these expenditures are :
(a) B and E (b) A and C (c) B and D (d) none of these
Answers:
1.) (d) Angle representing royalty D = (15×360/100)degrees = 54 degrees
2.) (b) C.P. of a book = Rs ( 100×30/120) = Rs 25
Cost of paper = Rs (20×25/100) = Rs 5
3.) (c) angle A = (20×360/100)degrees =72 degrees
Angle B = (25×360/100) degrees = 90 degrees
Angle C = (30×360/100) degrees = 108 degrees
Angle D = (10×360/100) degrees = 36 degrees
Angle E = (15×360/100) degrees = 54 degrees
Thus, A and D together will form an angle of 108 degrees.
4.) (d) These expenditures are A and B; Band C; D and E; and A and E.
LINE GRAPHS:
A line graph of a frequency distribution is obtained from the histogram of the frequency distribution by joining the mid points of respective tops of the rectangles in a histogram.
To complete the line graphs, the mid-points at each end are joined to the immediately lower or higher mid-points (as the case may be) at zero frequency.
Example:
Study the following graph and answer the following questions:
1.) The total expenditure of which of the following pairs of years was equal to the income in 1992?
(a) 1987 and 1988 (b) 1987 and 1989 (c) 1988 and 1989 (d) 1988 and 1990 (e) none of these
2.) What was the percentage decrease in expenditure from 1988 and 1989?
(a) 80 (b) 50 (c) 40 (d) 10 (e) none of these
3.) In how many of the given years was the expenditure more than the average expenditure of the given years?
(a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 1 (d) 5 (e) none of these
4.) In which of the following years was the percentage of expenditure to income, the highest?
(a) 1987 (b) 1988 (c) 1989 (d) 1991 (e) none of these
5.) What was the approximate percentage increase in income from 1991 to 1992?
(a) 35 (b) 40 (c) 20 (d) 15 (e) 25
Solution:
1.) (c) : income in 1992= 475 crores
Total expenditure in 1988 and 1989 = Rs.( 250+225) crores = Rs. 475 crores.
2.) (d) : expenditure in 1988 = Rs. 250 crores
Expenditure in 1989 = Rs. 225 crores.
The expenditure is greater than the average expenditure during the years 1987, 1990 and 1992.
Required no. of years =3
4.) (e): the required percentage :
In 1987 is (300×100/450) % = 66.66%
In 1988 is (250×100/400) % = 62.5%
In 1989 is (225×100/350) % = 64.29%
In 1990 is (375×100/425) % = 88.24%
In 1991 is (175×100/375) % = 46.6%
In 1992 is (400 ×100/475) % = 84.21%
Clearly the percentage is highest in 1990.
5.) (e): income in 1991 = 375 crores
Income in 1992 = 475 crores
Therefore increase % = (100×100/375) % = 26.6% = 25% nearly