Scientists of an International team have created the first artificial chromosome for complex cell organisms. Earlier, chromosomes have been created for simpler Prokaryotic cells. This artificial chromosome was functioning like a normal cell when it was inserted inside a Yeast cell.
The new chromosome is known as SynIII. The process involved designing and creating 273871 base pairs of DNA - fewer than the 316667 pairs in the original chromosome. The research is significant as the Yeast organisms consist of Eukaryotic cells like Humans, plants and animals. Yeast share about a 2000 genes with humans. The invention thus can play a significant role in redesigning the animals and other complex life forms.
• Researchers identified coding of one of yeast’s 16 pair of chromosomes.
• They used software to remove its repetitive and less used regions and added tags to it.
• They then created an artificial version of this altered chromosome.
• The artificial chromosome was inserted inside a yeast cell.
• It was able to reproduce like normal cells.
• Yeast gained new functions such as chemical switching which help researcher to scramble the chromosome into thousands of different variants which can make genetic manipulations far easier.
• About 50000 changes were made to the DNA code of the chromosome.