The entire functioning of Akbar’s administrative system was flawless and so effective. It was amazing to see a system of such a caliber which took in account all the flaws and rendered a completely un-chaotic plan.
Akbar categorized the entire plan into 5 main divisions.
a. The centralized government
b. The Provincial or State governance
c. The Legislative division
d. The Military division
e. The Financial department
Each of which is described further:
1. Centralized Government:
Akbar was the head of the kingdom under who were all the offices and officials. To reduce the work load he distributed the tasks and goals to different officers in the following manner:
• Wakeel: They were the chief advisors of the Emperor who headed the administration
• Diwan: Were of two categories:
A. Mansabdars- Who checked audited and controlled the finances.
B. Mir Baksh- Officials who distributed pays to senior officials.
• Sadar- I- Sadr: He was deployed as the head of the religious advisory whose task was to maintain religious unity.
• Khan- I - Saman: As his title suggests he was the royal Store In-Charge who facilitated the kitchen, social gatherings’ and the upkeep of palace interiors.
• Muhatib: He was like the royal counselor who was In-charge of the upkeep of Muslim ethics and culture.
• Kotwaal: He was the head of the Intelligence and postal department who kept records of new immigrants.
2. The Provincial Administration
Under the rule of Akbar the kingdom was divided into 15 Subas to manage the administration without any problems. These Subas were allotted to officials who kept a close account of all the activities that took place. These officials were:
• Subedar: He was the overall In-charge of Provincial development.
• Diwaan: He solicited the matters of finances and bills. He took charge of giving pays to the provincial officers.
• Sadr: He took care of state level judicial matters and helped people who were needy to get charity.
• Qazi: He was a local judge who took care of small judiciary matters that could be solved in small time limits.
• Kotwaal: He took charge of the law and order situation on state levels.
• Mir Baksh: He was In-Charge of local taxes and collection of revenue for the state welfare.
• Waqr-I-Nawis: They were secret detectives and spy services.
3. Military Administration
According to the historians Akbar had the most well equipped and decorated army with high morals which were the result of a planned system.
The army officials under the Mansabdars took care of all the following needs of the soldiers:
a. Getting pay on time
b. Taking care of the well being of injured soldiers
c. Granting them tax free rations.
d. Regular health check ups and awarding the deserving soldiers.
4. Financial Administration
Land was the main source of earning income during that times.The main officer who took care of the process was the Finance Officer Raja TodarMall who excelled in financial matters and exerted the idea of measuring the land on the scales of BIGHAS.
He classified the land into four divisions that were:
a. POLAJ–Land that was cultivable all throughout the year and gave rich harvests.
b. PARAUTI- Land left fallow after one harvest for almost 2 years to regain lost fertility.
c. CHHACHHAR- Land used for one harvest then left fallow for 4 to 5 years.
d. BANJAR –The infertile land that was not cultivable.
Farmers were given lots of compensations Taxes were removed during draught and floods or any kind of natural calamities.
State got 1/3rd of the produce.
5. The Legislative Administration
Akbar was a very judicious ruler who reformed the judicial system according to the Hindu laws. He was a true democrat who valued the feelings and ethical values of his people. He had separate laws for Muslim or Islamic laws.
During Akbar’s reign there were many courts, the highest in rank being the King himself. The King had the authority to pronounce capital punishment.
Akbar’s infallible administrative system proves his very wise acumen for bringing about greater changes in the political chaos of a country which was an amalgamation of a bouquet of religions; the major ones being the Hindus and the Muslims.
But Akbar’s approach to see this geo-political situation in a systematic approach was what gave birth to the Federal Administrative system, which is practiced even today in many countries of the world.