The Lodhi Dynasty under the Delhi Sultanate was the first Afghan Pashtun Dynasty in India who ruled from AD 1451 to 1526.This dynasty replaced the Sayyid Dynasty and it was a period of reforms in administration, strengthening the army, gearing up the machinery of land revenue administration, expansion and improvement of the cultivation and welfare of the people. Here, we are giving a complete overview on the Lodhi Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.
1. He was the founder of the Lodhi dynasty. During the reign of Muhammad Shah he served as the Subedar (Governor) of Lahore and Sirhind.
2. He tried to restore the greatness of the Delhi sultanate, hence conquered territories surrounding Delhi. The most successful war was against Mahmud Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur. Territories conquered by Bahlol Lodhi.
3. Mewat (Ahmad Khan), Sambhal (Dariya Khan), Koll (lsa Khan), Suket (Mubarak Khan), Manipur and Bhongaon (Raja Pratap ; Singh), Rewari (Qutb Khan), Etawah and Chandwar.
4. He was succeeded by his able son Nizam Shah under the title of Sultan Sikandar Shah in AD 1489.
1. He was the ablest of the three Lodhi rulers. He conquered Bihar and Raja of Tirhut and concluded a friendship treaty with the Alauddin Hussain Shah of Bengal. Dariya Khan was appointed as the Governor of Bengal.
2. Sikandar extended his empire by conquering Dholpur, Chanderi etc. He kept strict vigilance on his nobles and Jagirdars whom he strictly suppressed.
3. He set up an efficient espionage system and introduced the system of auditing the accounts.
4. He relaxed restrictions on trade, which greatly promoted the economic prosperity of the people. He introduced "Gaz-i-Sikandari" (Sikandar's yard) of 39 digits or 32 inches, for the measurement of agricultural land.
5. He transferred his capital from Delhi to Agra, a city which was founded by him. The village of Sikandara, near Agra, where the tomb of Akbar stands, was named after Sikandar.
6. He was staunch Sunni and a Muslim fanatic. He lacked religious tolerance and levied Jaziya and Pilgrim's tax on Hindus. He was a liberal patron of arts and letters. He wrote verses in Persian under the pen name of Gulrukhi.
1. Sikandar Shah was succeeded simultaneously by his two sons Ibrahim on the throne of Agra and Jalal on the throne of Jaunpur. Later, Ibrahim killed Jalal and succeeded his father.
2. There were many revolts during his reign; Bihar declared its independence under Dariya Khan Lohani.
3. His repressive policy towards the Lohani, Formuli and Lodhi tribes and his unsympathetic treatment of Dilawar Khan, the governor of Lahore, turned the nobles against him. Battle of Panipat, AD 1526.
4. Daulat Khan Lodhi (father of Dilawar Khan) and Alam Khan invited Babu, the Timurid ruler of Kabul, to invade India.
In the first battle of Panipat (AD 1526), Babur defeated Ibrahim and killed him. He became the master of Delhi and Agra. This puts an end to the Sultanate and the rise of Mughal dynasty in India.