71st Republic Day 2020: Journey of Indian Republic
On 15 August 1947, India got independence and that time India was headed by King George VI till the Constitution of India came into force that is on 26 January, 1950. This is the day when India declared itself a democratic republic nation. The first President of India was Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
Let us tell you that Republic Day of India is celebrated with the salute of 21 guns and unfurling of the Indian National flag by the President of India. We know India became Independent from British rule on 15th August 1947 and adopted Constitution on 26 January, 1950 by declaring ourselves as Sovereign, Democratic and Republic state. Every year, 26 January is celebrated with immense pride & happiness all over the country.
The evolution of India from a British colony to a sovereign, democratic and secular nation was certainly historical. It was a long journey of around 2 decades that started with the conceptualization of the vision in 1930 to its actual comprehension in 1950. A stare into the expedition that led to the birth of the Indian Republic will make our carousing more significant.
Do you know that at this day a massive parade held at Rajpath in New Delhi before the President of India which reflects power, force, different regional models reflecting cultural themes and motifs?
First, we will discuss about the Origin of Republic Day:
When India became Independent on 15th August 1947, our country did not have its Constitution and in total it was dependent on the colonial Government of India Act, 1935. Until the adoption of the Constitution in 1950 India’s head was King George VI. But before this seed of Indian republican nation was sown by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in Lahore Session of INC (Indian National Congress). Now, let us see the Lahore Session in detail.
Lahore Session of Indian National Congress
The seeds of the republic nation were disseminated at the Lahore conference of Indian National Congress at midnight of December 31st, 1929. The session was held under the administration of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. Nationalists present in the summit took an oath to mark January 26th as "Independence Day" to march towards realizing the vision of absolute independence from the British. The Lahore Session lined the way to the Civil Disobedience Movement. It was made certain that 26th January, 1930 would be observed as the Purna Swaraj Day and unfurled the tri-colour flag by taking a pledge to celebrate complete Independence Day every year on 26 January. Numerous political parties of India and revolutionaries of India from all over India united to observe the day with honor and pride.
Second is Cabinet Mission Plan:
The Cabinet Mission was arrived on March 24, 1946 and was composed of three Cabinet Ministers of England they were:
(i) Sir Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State for India.
(ii) Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade.
(iii) Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty.
Do you know the main objective of this mission?
- To devise machinery for making up the Constitution of India.
- Arrangements for Interim Government.
- There shall be the Union of India which was to be empowered to deal with the defence foreign affairs and communications.
- The Cabinet mission did not accept the demand for Pakistan.
- Restricted Communal Representation.
- All the members of the Interim Cabinet would be Indian with minimum interference by the Viceroy.
- Other than Union Subjects all the residuary powers will be vested with the Provinces.
- The representatives of Provincial Assemblies and the Princely States would be formed by a Constituent Assembly and provincial legislatures were grouped into three sections.
Group A: Hindu dominated population area like Madras, UP, Central provinces, Bombay, Bihar & Orissa
Group B: Muslim dominated population area like Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Baluchistan.
Group C: Hindu and Muslim both like Assam and Bengal.
Here, it is to be noted that whether the Cabinet Mission did not accept the demand of Pakistan but grouped the Provinces in such a way that indirectly supported the idea of Pakistan. As a result, Congress accepted the plan, Muslim League first accepted and later on July 29 rejected it and call for an Action Day for achieving Pakistan. August 16, 1946 was fixed as Direct Action Day.
Thirdly, Indian Constituent Assembly Meetings
Indian Constituent Assembly, which was formed as a consequence of the discussions between the Indian leaders & members of the British Cabinet Mission, had its 1st meeting on December 9, 1946. The purpose of the Assembly was to present India a Constitution, which would serve a lasting principle & hence selected a number of committees to methodically explore an assortment of aspects of the projected constitution. The recommendations were debated, discussed & revised many times before the Indian Constitution was confirmed & officially adopted 3 years later on 26th November, 1949.
Fourth is when Constitution came into power
Although India became a free nation on 15th August, 1947, it enjoyed the true strength of Independence on 26th January, 1950 when the Indian Constitution finally came into force. The Constitution gave the Indian citizens the power to administer themselves by opting for their own government. Dr. Rajendra Prasad took oath as the 1st President of India. Ever since the remarkable day, 26th January is distinguished with festivities & patriotic zeal all around the nation. The day owes its significance to the Indian constitution that was espoused on this day.