Space exploration includes the continual discovery and exploration of heavenly bodies in outer space by applying advanced space technologies by astronomers. This covers the telescopic study of space by astronomers, and the physical investigation by robotic probes as well as human spacecraft.
Several times space exploration has been used as an agent for cold war amongst the nations.
History of Space Exploration
- On 4 October 1957, the first man-made object Sputnik 1 was launched to orbit the Earth by erstwhile USSR.
- On 20 July 1969, the American craft Apollo 11 was the first one to land on Moon.
- In 1961, the Soviet space program was successful in sending the first human spaceflight Vostok 1 carrying Yuri Gagarin.
- Next was the first spacewalk by Aleksei Leonoy on 18 March 1965, followed by the first automatic landing on another heavenly body in 1966, and the launching of the first space station Salyut 1 in 1971.
Later, the focus for space exploration transformed from space crafts to renewable hardware, like Space Shuttle program.
Another big event, during 1998, is the launching of International Space Station (ISS) by American Space Shuttles as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets.The ISS is a space station which serves as a research laboratory in which scientists conduct experiments in astronomy, meteorology, biology, physics, etc.
On 3 October 1942, the German scientists were successful on putting an artificial object into space A-4, while testing the V-2 rocket during World War II. Post this war, the U.S took help from German scientists and their rockets in their research. On 10 May 1946, the first cosmic radiation experiment was launched by the U.S. on a V-2 rocket. This was the first scientific exploration done by taking the images of Earth from space. In 1947, the first animal experiment was conducted by lifting of fruit flies into space through modified V-2s launched by U.S. In 1947, the Russians, also in association with German scientists, launched sub-orbital V-2 rockets, along with their own variant, the R-1. Some radiation and animal experiments were also conducted on these flights.