What is Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was established by the newly independent States who came from the colonial system after prolonged struggle. During the early days of the Movement, its actions were a key factor in the decolonization process, which later led to the attainment of freedom and independence by many countries and people and also led to the foundation of tens new sovereign States.
Created On: Mar 11, 2016 19:06 IST
Modified On: Mar 15, 2016 15:36 IST

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was established by the newly independent States who came from the colonial system after prolonged struggle. During the early days of the Movement, its actions were a key factor in the decolonization process, which later led to the attainment of freedom and independence by many countries and people and also led to the foundation of tens new sovereign States.

 Jagranjosh

Historical Background

After World War II, two superpowers emerged, the US and the former USSR. At the same time, imperialism was on the wane and the nations were gaining independence in Asia and Africa. The superpowers sought to win over as many small independent nations as possible. This led to a cold war between the former USSR, which led the socialist countries, and the USA, which posed as the leader of free democracies.

India decided in the circumstances not to commit itself to any big power. At this juncture, at the Asian Relations Conference in March 1957, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru put forth the novel concept of non alignment for the common aspirations of the newly liberated countries of Asia and Africa. According to him:  'For too long, we, the people of Asia, have been petitioner in western courts and chancelleries. That story must now belong to the past. We propose to stand on our own feet.  We do not intend to be playthings of others.' Hence in order to maintain the freedom of India and other independent nations, the concept of the NAM was evolved.

Founder Members of NAM

The credit of evolving the concept goes to Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The other contributors were:

  • Marshal Tito-President of Yugoslavia
  • Dr Sukarno-President of Indonesia
  • G. A. Nasser-President of Egypt

During formation of NAM, two conferences are very important which are given below:

  • Bandung Conference: A conference of the like-minded countries was held in April 1955 in Indonesia (Bandung). It became the forum for the birth of the NAM.
  • Brioni Conference:  The principles adopted at the Bandung Conference were given a practical shape at Brioni Yugoslavia) in July 1956, in an informal meeting between the three leaders, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Marshall Tito Col. Nasser.       

Basic Principles of the NAM

The principles adopted at the Bandung Conference and led at the first summit meeting were:

  • Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  • Mutual non-aggression
  • Mutual non-interference in each other's affairs
  • Equality and mutual benefit
  • Peaceful co-existence

Later these principles are collectively known as Panchsheel and are the basic guidelines for the functioning the NAM.

NAM Conferences

Meet

Year

Venue

Number of Countries participated

1st

September 1961

Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

25

2nd

October 1964

Cairo (Egypt)

47

3rd

September 1964

Lusaka (Zambia)

54

4th

September 1973

Algiers (Algeria)

73

5th

August 1976

Colombo (Sri Lanka)

88

6th

September 1979

Havana (Cuba)

94

7th

March 1983

New Delhi (India)

100

8th

September 1986

Harare (Zimbabwe)

101

9th

September 1989

Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

102

10th

September 1992

Jakarta (Indonesia)

108

11th

October 1995

Cartagena

109

12th

September 1998

Durban (South Africa)

112

13th

September 2003

Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

116

14th

September 2006

Havana (Zimbabwe)

115

15th

July 2009

Sham EI Sheikh    (Egypt)

118

16th

August 2012

Tehran (Iran)

120

17th

2015

Caracas (Venezuela)

---------

Organizational Structure and Membership

There are 10 'Bandung Principles' that the candidate country has to follow to attain membership of NAM. These are listed here under.

  • Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
  • Recognition of the movements for national independence.
  • Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations, large and small.
  • Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country.
  • Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself singly or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations,
  • Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country.
  • Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations.
  • Promotion of mutual interests and co-operation.
  • Respect for justice and international obligations.

Hence, more or less the requirements for membership of the NAM coincide with key beliefs of the United Nations.

Related Categories