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IAS Prelims Exam:Physical Geography NCERT Questions:Geomorphic Process

Mar 14, 2016 15:56 IST

    For the Civil Services IAS Exam Geography has vast and it covers most sections of the General Studies for the IAS Prelims Exam. The geography is scientific in its orientation and hence the IAS Asirants having Arts background find it very difficult to prepare the geography for the IAS Prelims Exam.

    Q.1.Which of the following are reasons for uneven surface of earth?

    1. Earth moves vertically and horizontally.
    2. Earth’s crust is dynamic.
    3. Earth is continuously subjected to  external forces originating within the earth’s atmosphere

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. only 1
    a. 1 and 3 only
    b. 2 and 3 only
    c. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: First of all, the earth’s crust is dynamic.  It moved a bit faster in the past than the rate at which it is moving now. The internal forces are still active though with different intensities. That means, the earth’s surface is being continuously subjected to by external forces originating within the earth’s atmosphere and by internal forces from within the earth.

    Q.2.Consider the following statements

    1. Earth crust moved a bit faster in the past than the rate at which it is moving now.
    2. The endogenic forces are mainly land wearing forces and the exogenic processes are mainly land building forces.

    Select the correct statements using following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: The endogenic forces are mainly land building forces and the exogenic processes are mainly land wearing forces.  

    Q.3.Which of the following force contribute to endogenic geomorphic processes?

    1. primordial heat from the origin of the earth
    2. radioactivity
    3. rotational and tidal friction

    Select the correct statements using following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 3
    c. Only  1 and 2
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: The endogenic forces are mainly land building forces and the exogenic processes are mainly land wearing forces.  Radioactivity and rotational and tidal friction are exogenic forces.

    Q.4. Consider the following statements

    1. All processes that elevate  earth’s crust come under diastrophism
    2. Earthquakes involving local relatively minor movements also come under diastrophism

    Select the correct statements using following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation: All processes that move, elevate or build up portions of the earth’s crust come under diastrophism. They include: orogenic processes involving mountain building through severe folding and affecting long and narrow belts of the earth’s crust;  epeirogenic processes involving uplift or warping of large parts of the earth’s crust;  earthquakes involving local relatively minor movements; plate tectonics involving horizontal movements of crustal plates.

    Q.5.Which of the following is true about exogenic geomorphic forces?

    1. Exogenic geomorphic processes vary from region to region.
    2. Besides the gravitational stress earth materials become subjected to molecular stresses

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: molecular stresses that may be caused by a number of factors amongst which temperature changes, crystallisation and melting. As there are different climatic regions on the earth’s surface the exogenic geomorphic processes vary from region to region. Temperature and precipitation are the two important climatic elements that control various processes.

    Q.6. Which of the following are true about weathering?

    1. Expansion of salts due to hydration and crystallisation is physical weathering
    2. Decay and solubility of some elements by Decaying plant and animal matter is chemical weathering.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Expansion of salts due to hydration and crystallisation is physical weathering. Decay and solubility of some elements by Decaying plant and animal matter is biological weathering.

    Q.7. Consider the following statements

    1. Weathering is an in-situ process
    2. Magnitude and depth of weathering differs from climate to climate.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation:  As very little or no motion of materials takes place in weathering it is an in-situ or on site process. Not only weathering processes differ from climate to climate, but also the Depth of weathering mantle.

    Q.8. Which of the following is/are chemical weathering?

    1. Solution.
    2. Carbonation.
    3. Frost weathering.

    Select the correct answer from the following

    a. Only 3
    b. Only 2 and 3
    c. Only 1 and2
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Solution, carbonation hydration, oxidation and reduction are chemical weathering. Physical weatherings are unloading and expansion, Temperature changes and expansion, Freezing, Thawing and frost wedging, salt weathering.

    Q.9. Which of the following is/are not Biological weathering?

    1. Cultivation.
    2. Burrowing by organism.
    3. Decaying of plants.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a.Only 1

    b.Only 1 and 2
    c.Only 2 and 3
    d.None

    Answer: d

    Explanation:  Biological weathering are borrowing and wedging by organisms, ploughing and cultivating soils, Decaying plant and animal matter help in production of humie, carbonic and other acids which enhance decay and solubility of elements causing weathering.

    Q.10. Consider the following statements

    1. Biomes and biodiversity depend upon the depth of weathering.
    2. Weathering influences enrichment of certain valuable ores.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Biomes and biodiversity is basically a result of forests and forests depend upon the depth of weathering mantles. Weathering of rocks and deposits helps in enrichment and concentrations of certain valuable ores of iron, manganese, aluminium, copper etc.

    Q11. Consider the following statements regarding the mass movement of rock debris.

    1. Weathering is pre-requisite for mass movement.
    2. Mass movement are aided by erosion.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation:  Weathering is not a pre requisite for mass movement though it aids mass movement, Mass movement are aided by gravity and no geomorphic agent like running water, glaciers, wind, waves and currents participate in the process of mass movements. This shows that mass movement do not come under erosion though there is shift of materials from one place to another.

    Q.12. Which of the following is/are characteristics of soil?

    1. Soil characteristics fluctuate with season
    2. Soil is result of decay
    3. Amount of organic matter in soil changed with reason.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 1 and 2
    c. Only 2 and 3
    d. 1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Soil is a result of decay, it is also medium for growth. Biological activity is slowed or stopped if the soil becomes too cold or too dry. Organic matter increases when leaves fall or grasses die. The soil chemistry, the amount of organic matter the soil flora and fauna, the temperature and the moisture, all change with the seasons.

    Q.13. Consider the following statements

    1. Parent material is passive control factor in soil formation.
    2. Young soils show strong links with parent rock than matured soils.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: b

    Explanation:  Parent materials can be any in situ or on site weathered rock debris .  when soils are very young and have not matured these show strong links with the type of parent rock.

    Q.14. Consider the following statements

    1.  Humus accumulates more in sub-arctic and tundra climates than in tropical climates.
    2.  Earthworms feed on soil and changes its texture and chemistry of soil.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes

    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2

    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation:  In humid tropical and equatorial climates, bacterial growth and action is intense and dead vegetation is rapidly oxidised leaving very low humus content in the soil. With un-decomposed organic matter because of low bacterial activity, layers of peat develop in sub-arctic and tundra climates. In case of earthworms, as they feed on soil, the texture and chemistry of soil that comes out of their body changes.

     

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