So many questions are comming while a student starts the chapter or unit of biotechnology in class 12th like:
what are the moto to study the biotechnology at class 12th?
what are the future options?
why it is in syllabus?
how it will be useful in future?
and many more..
lets start with the basic concepts which will be helpful for the students
below are the three main steps involved in the principle of biotechnology
i. Principle of biotechnology
ii. Tools of recombinant DNA technology
iii. Processes of recombinant DNA technology
I. Principle of biotechnology
The important techniques that enable the birth of modern biotechnology are:
it is nothing but the popular name of recombinant DNA technology Manipulation of DNA is involved in the rDNA Technology and that is the reason to called as genetic engineering
To provide the sterile environment(microbial contamination free environment) to enable the growth of only desired microbes in large quantities for the manufacturing of biotechnological products like antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes etc,.
II. Tools of recombinant DNA technology
The various biological tools used to bring about genetic manipulations in genetic engineering like:
1. Restriction enzymes
5'-- GAATTC --3'
3'-- CTTAAG --5'
After this DNA sequence is cut, it might look something like this:
5'-- G AATTC --3'
3'-- C TTAAG --5'
Ligase is an enzyme used in genetic engineering for "gluing". It fills the gap and completes restoration process to form intact DNA circles.
These are small extra chromosomal double stranded circular DNA molecules present in bacteria which have the capacity to self replicate or A segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication, occurring in bacteria and yeast: used in recombinant DNA procedures to transfer genetic material from one cell to another.
4. Host organism
The host cells are used for the amplification of gene of interest. E.coli is the most preferred host because
III. Processes of recombinant DNA technology
The recombinant DNA technique is carried out in the following steps
1. Isolation of the genetic material(DNA)
2. Cutting of DNA at specific location
3. Amplification of gene of interest using PCR
PCR mixture is prepared is heated to 95 degree to denature the DNA into single stranded molecules
PCR mixture=(primers+targeted DNA+Taq polymarase + 4 dna nucleotides
2. Renaturation/ Annealing
Mixture is cooled at 55 degree cel.to allow the primers to anneal their complementary sequences
4. Insertion of rDNA into the host cell/ organism
The E.coli is treated with cold CaCl2 to open the pores of cell wall, to facilate the entry of recombinant DNA (transformation).
5. Obtaining the foreign gene product
Birth of Dolly , Golden Rice, bt cotton, gene therapy etc
Genetically Modified Animal-Dolly(5 July-1996): get an idea that how this technique is applied in the process of cloning
- cell biology
Genetic Engineering: Moving a gene from one organism to another
- chemical engineering
As of December 2003:
Biotechnology Applications in Health and Medicine
Biotech Products in Use
Now with the advancement of technology, so many options are available for your graduation study like
B.Tech Biomedical Engineering
And many more...
So it is the main reason that why biotechnology get introduced in class 12th level