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NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 12 Biology ‒ Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

May 12, 2017 09:00 IST

    Download NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 12 Biology ‒ Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

    Image source: NCERT textbook for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 9, Strategies for Enhancement

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – Chapter 9, Strategies for Enhancement are available here. You can also download the NCERT Solutions of the chapter in PDF format with the help of download link given at the end of this article. Some important topics of this chapter are animal husbandry, plant breeding, single cell proteins, and tissue culture. Most of the questions given at the end of this chapter are based on these topics. These NCERT problems and solutions are important for CBSE 12th Biology board exam 2018 as well as medical entrance exams like NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test).

    NCERT solutions and problems of Class 12 Biology ‒ Chapter 9, Strategies for Enhancement are given below:

    Question1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

    Solution1.

    Animal husbandry means agricultural practice of breeding and raising live stock. Animals like cows, hen, pigs, fish etc are grown for human benefits as their product like milk, flesh; eggs etc are consumed by humans. Proper care of animals are managed in terms of their feeding, breeding so that there population increases and more humans can get their products. As the population of human being is increasing day by day, animal husbandry should be done on larger scale.

    Question2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?

    Solution2.

    Production of milk is directly dependent upon the quality of cattle breeds.

    Increasing the production is the main aim of dairy farm projects through various processes. Firstly, improved or high yielding varieties of cattle should be chose. The production of milk also depends on the local conditions like proper feeding, adequate water supply etc. Proper cleanliness and hygienic conditions should be maintained at place of cattle. Regular monitoring of cattle must be done to identify any kind of diseases and solve it as soon as possible.

    CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2017-18

    Question3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

    Solution3.

    Special variety of animals within a species are called breed. Breeds look like similar to other members of species but they are more efficient in terms of producing animal products. Jersey cows are one of the examples in cows as they can produce much more amount of milk then normal cows. The objectives of breeding are as follows:

    (a) To increase the production of animal products.

    (b) To get the desired quality of animals.

    (c) To produce animals who are resistant to diseases.

    Question4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which one of the methods is best? Why?

    Solution4.

    Mainly there are two types of animal breeding:

    (a) Natural breeding: Natural method is further classified into two categories random and controlled process. In random process, gazing cows are kept with superior pedigree bulls. In controlled breeding native cows are mated with superior exotic bulls.

    (b) Artificial breeding: In this kind of breeding, the semen of superior bulls of exotic breeds is inseminated into native cows to produce good quality progeny.

    Artificial breeding if best method because of following reasons:

    It is more economical than natural breeding as we don’t have to take the whole animal to that place.

    It ensures good progeny.

    Its progeny can be preserved for future.

    There are lesser chances of wastage.

    Semen of one bull can be used for thousands of cows.

    NCERT Exemplar Questions: CBSE Class 12 Biology - All Chapters

    Question5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

    Solution5.

    Practice of maintaining beehives for the production of honey, waxes etc are termed apiculture. It is important because of following ways:

    (a) Honey is highly nutritive food and is also used in various medicines.

    (b) Wax is used in various industries for many purposes like polishing, cosmetics etc.

    (c) Apiculture is a good source of income.

    (d) Honey is highly beneficial for diabetic patient.

    Question6. Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.

    Solution6.

    Fisheries industries deals with the catching and marketing of aquatic animals like fishes. These aquatic animals are consumed by human and they are very high economical value. In India fisheries play an important role in Indian economy and provide employment on a large scale. Aquatic animals like fishes are consumed much because it is cheap and rich in protein diet.

    Especially in coastal regions fisheries play an important role in both as in food and providing employment.

    Fisheries industries deals with the catching and marketing of aquatic animals like fishes. These aquatic animals are consumed by human and they are very high economical value. In India fisheries play an important role in Indian economy and provide employment on a large scale. Aquatic animals like fishes are consumed much because it is cheap and rich in protein diet.

    Especially in coastal regions fisheries play an important role in both as in food and providing employment.

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology: All Chapters

    Question7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

    Solution7.

    The process of crossing two genetically dissimilar varieties to produce a new variety of hybrid is called plant breeding. Through this process we can obtain character of both parents in the new hybrid. Various steps involved in plant breeding are as follows:

    (a) First of all, all different kinds of species of plant’s seed are preserved.

    (b) The germplasm is evaluated and desirable characters res identified.

    These selected plants are crossed to obtain pureline.

    (c) The desired characteristics are combined and hybridized from two different parents.

    (d) These hybrids are allowed to self pollinate to produce homozygosity.

    (e) The new breeds are evaluated for good qualities are grown in research field under controlled conditions. These grown varieties are tested for three seasons in an open field. Then these grown varieties are compared to local variety and if the news variety is better than local one, they are released in market.

    Question8. Explain what is meant by bio fortification.

    Solution8.

    Breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals and healthier fats are called bio fortification. By bio fortification we can produce good quality of crops which will be richer in protein content, oil content, vitamin content and mineral content.

    Question9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

    Solution9.

    Viruses mostly affect plant parts like roots, tubers, bulbs etc. Apical and axillaries parts are always free from virus. So, if healthy shoot tips of infected plants are grown by tissue culture will produce healthy plants. This is commonly used in potatoes, sugarcane etc.

    Question10. What is the major advantage of producing plants by micropropagation?

    Solution10.

    The major advantages of producing plants by Micropropagation are as follows:

    • Very small size explants can be used for micropropagation. This is impossible with conventional technique. Important when limited explant is available.

    • Very small size explants can be used for micropropagation. This is impossible with conventional technique. Important when limited explant is available.

    • Very small size explants can be used for micropropagation. This is impossible with conventional technique. Important when limited explant is available.

    • In case of dioecious species, where one of the sex is more desirable then under such circumstances plants of desired sex can be selectively multiplied by this technique.

    • The output is clean, healthy and pathogen free, as during micropropagation, fungi and bacteria are usually eliminated.

    • Easy export, no quarantine problem, as plants obtained is pathogen / virus / disease free.

    • Independent of the season; can be carried out throughout the year.

    Question11. Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of explants in vitro are?

    Solution11.

    The vegetative multiplication of plants under controlled and observed condition from various parts of plants like root, shoot, callus etc. major advantages of micropropagation are as follows:

    (a) It produces a large number of plants in a short period.

    (b) It produces a large number of plants in a short period.

    (c) It produces a large number of plants in a short period.

    The major components of medium used for propagation of explants in vitro are sources of carbon like sucrose, vitamins, salts, a.acids, inorganic salts, water, agar-agar and some growth hormones like gibberellins and auxins.

    Question12. Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.

    Solution12.

    Some varieties of lysine rich maize produced in India are: Shakti, Rattan, Protina.

    Few varieties of wheat are: Sonalika, Kalyan.

    Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology ‒ Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production in PDF format

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