Get here the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 - Agriculture. You will find here the most accurate answers that are easy to understand and helpful in clearing all doubts. You will find here the NCERT solutions only for the questions given in the latest NCERT Book for Class 8 Geography which has been published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) exclusively for the current academic year. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Resource And Development Chapter 4 - Agriculture:
1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is agriculture?
Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers and rearing of livestock.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?
Some major factors that influence agriculture are:
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Shifting cultivation is a type of farming activity in which a plot of land is cleared by cutting down trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned. The farmers then move to a new place.
This type of farming has the following disadvantages.
- It leads to deforestation.
- The land used loses its fertility after some time
- It also leads to soil erosion
- Burning of trees causes air pollution
- Crops are cultivated on small plots of land which is insufficient for feeding a large population.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Plantations are a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown. It requires a large amount of capital and labour. The produce can be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. This type of farming can be found in tropical regions of the world like India, Sri Lanka and Brazil.
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Jute and Cotton are fibre crops.
The climatic conditions required for the growth of Jute are:
- High temperature
- Heavy rainfall
- High humidity
The climatic conditions required for the growth of cotton are:
- High temperature
- Light rainfall
- Bright sunshine
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2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
Answer: (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
Answer: (c) Jute
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
3. Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
In India, agriculture is a primary activity because of the following reasons:
- Most part of the Indian land is fertile which is favourable for agriculture.
- Due to the lack of literacy, two-third of India’s population is dependent upon agriculture since they acquire the required skills from their ancestors.
- To fulfill the needs of the huge population in India, large scale production of food is quite necessary.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
The type of crop grown is dependent upon the type of soil and the type of climate of a region. Since different regions have different soil types and climatic conditions so, a crop may have favourable factors of growth in a particular region only. The demand of produce, labour and level of technology are some other factors that decide the type of crops grown in a particular region.
4. Distinguish between the following.
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
Difference between primary and secondary activities:
These activities are related to production and extraction of natural resources.
These are activities that provide support to the primary and the secondary sector.
For example: Agriculture, fishing, mining.
For example: Transport, communication, banking, advertising.
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.
Difference between subsistence and intensive farming:
It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to meet the needs of his family.
It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to increase the production of crops in a small plot of land so as to earn some profit.
It involves the use of low levels of technology and household labour.
It involves the use of simple tools and extra labour.
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