Find here the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 6 - Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners. These NCERT Solutions will provide you with the accurate and well illustrated answers to all the questions given at the end of chapter 6 of the latest NCERT History Book of Class 8. The answers prepared by the subject experts are perfect to clear all your concepts and excel in the subject. You may download all the questions and answers in PDF format and refer to them as and when required.
Class 8 History
Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Cotton and Silk had a large market in Europe. Different varieties of Indian textiles like Chintz, Cossaes or Khassa and Bandanna were sold in European markets.
2. What is jamdani?
Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used in this.
3. What is bandanna?
Bandanna is any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term bandhna referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.
4. Who are the Agaria?
Agaria are the Indian community of iron smelters.
5. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The word chintz comes from the word _________.
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of_________ steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the _________ century.
(a) The word chintz comes from the word chhint.
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of wootz steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the nineteenth century.
6. How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
The names of different textiles tell us about their histories as mentioned below:
(i) Muslin: European traders first saw fine cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in Mosul in present-day Iraq. Hence, they named all finally woven textiles as muslin.
(ii) Chintz: This name is derived from a Hindi word chhint, a cloth with small and colourful floral designs.
(iii) Bandanna: This name is derived from the Hindi word ‘Bandhna' that is referred to a variety of bright coloured and printed scarves for the neck or head.
(iv) Calico: When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices, they landed in Calicut. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe came to be known as calico, which is derived from Calicut.
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7. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
The wool and silk producers in England protested against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century because they found themselves unable to compete with the Indian textiles that were available in fine quality and at low prices in the market. The English wool and silk producers wanted a ban on Indian textiles to secure their business in England.
8. How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in several ways. Some of them are mentioned below:
- Indian textiles had to compete with English cotton industries both in England and in India
- Expansion of the British cotton industries led to the shrinkage of Indian textile producers.
- High dutieswere imposed on Indian textiles in Britain due to which it became difficult to export textiles to England.
- Thousands of Indian textile producers were rendered jobless due to the British taking over the market with their industries.
- By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets that severely affected not only the specialist weavers but also the spinners.
9. Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
The Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century due to the following reasons:
- Imposition of new forest laws prevented people from entering the reserved forests. Due to this, Indian smelters were unable to get wood for charcoal and iron ore. Hence, many smelters abandoned their work and looked for some other jobs.
- Iron smelters were asked to pay high taxes to the forest authorities for every furnace they used. This reduced their income.
- By the late nineteenth century, iron and steel was being imported from Britain. Ironsmiths in India began using the imported iron. This inevitably lowered the demand for iron produced by local smelters.
- By the early twentieth century, smelters faced competition from the iron and steel industries that began to be set up in the country.
10. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
Several problems faced by the Indian textile industry in the early years of its development are mentioned below:
- Indian textile industry found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain
- Huge export prices made it difficult for them to export their textiles to England.
- The government wanted to increase the import of English textiles in India which was facilitated by zero import duties on the English cloth.
11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
The following reasons helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War:
- During the first world war, the British steel industries were producing steel for fulfilling the war needs of Europe. Due to this, the import of British steel declined in India.
- Indian markets turned to TISCO for rail work to supply iron and steel.
- At the same time, TISCO also built shells and carriage wheels for fulfilling the War needs of Britain.
- By 1919, the colonial government was purchasing about 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO.
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