NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 - Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
Find here the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 - Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age. Download the best and comprehensive solutions in PDF here.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 4 - Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age are provided here for free PDF download. Get here the best explained answers to all questions given in chapter 4 of the latest NCERT History Book of Class 8. Download all the questions and answers in PDF here.
Class 8 History
Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British described the tribal people as ____________.
(b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as ____________.
(c) The tribal chiefs got ____________ titles in central India under the British land settlements.
(d) Tribals went to work in the ____________ of Assam and the ____________ in Bihar.
(a) The British described the tribal people as wild and savage.
(b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as broadcasting.
(c) The tribal chiefs got land titles in central India under the British land settlements.
(d) Tribals went to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines in Bihar.
2. State whether true or false:
(a) Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds.
(b) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price.
(c) Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
(d) The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.
(a) False - Jhum cultivators were involved in shifting cultivation. They used to go the different lands and prepared them for cultivation. They scattered the seeds on the field instead of ploughing the land and sowing the seeds.
(d) False, the British did not want to preserve the tribal way of life.
3. What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?
The British were uncomfortable with the shifting cultivators, as they were always moving from one place to another in search of pasture lands. For administrative and economic reasons, the British wanted the shifting cultivators to settle down and become peasant cultivators. The British thought it was easier to control and administer peasant cultivators than shifting cultivators. In addition to this, changes in forest laws had a considerable effect on tribal lives. The British extended their control over all forests and declared that forests were state property. People were not allowed to move freely in these forests, practise jhum cultivation, collect fruits, or hunt animals. Many of the shifting cultivators were therefore forced to move to other areas in search of work and livelihood.
4. How did the powers of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?
The tribal chiefs enjoyed a certain amount of economic power and had the right to administer and control their territories. But under the colonial rule, their functions and powers changed to a great extent:
- They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages and rent out lands, but they lost much of their administrative power.
- They were forced to follow laws made by the British officials in India.
- They also had to pay tribute to the British.
- They were expected to discipline the tribal groups on behalf of the British government.
- They lost the authority that they had earlier enjoyed among their people and were unable to fulfill their traditional functions.
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5. What accounts for the anger of the tribals against the dikus?
The tribals considered the British, moneylenders and traders as ‘dikus’ which means outsiders. They believed that the dikus were responsible for all their miseries. The reasons for their anger against the dikus were as follows:
- The tribals practiced shifting cultivation but the British forced them to settle down and become the peasant cultivators.
- The traders and the moneylenders came into the forests to buy forest produce and lured them take loans at high interest rates. The tribals once caught into the debt trap remained indebted throughout their lives.
- Under the British rule, the tribal chiefs lost the authority that they had earlier enjoyed among their people and were unable to fulfill their traditional functions.
- The tribals were evacuated from their lands and they had to look for other livelihood options.
6. What was Birsa’s vision of a golden age? Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?
Birsa Munda was a charismatic leader of the Munda tribe. His vision of golden age was the arrival of the time when the tribals would have their land free of dikus and regain their lost glory. He talked about the age when the tribals would not kill each other and live an honest life. He urged the people to give up drinking liquor, clean their village, and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery. He did not want any role of outsider participants like missionaries, Hindu landlords, moneylenders, traders and Europeans.
His vision appealed to the people as they believed that all their miseries were the result of the unfair laws and policies of the dikus. They will lead a free and peaceful life only when they will regain their land.
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