Administration of Sher Shah Suri: A detailed Summary
Sher Shah Suri was benevolent ruler and was one of the greatest administrators of medieval India. He introduced many reforms and on that basis Akbar built a superstructure of Mughal administration. His administration has been centralised administration just like sultanate period. He was the first Muslim ruler of India who displayed a real aptitude for civil government. Here, we are giving the summary of the administration of Sher Shah Suri, which can be used as revision capsule by the aspirants of different competitive exams.
Administration of Sher Shah Suri
1. He divided his whole empire into 47 divisions called ‘Sarkars’ and these were again subdivided into smaller administrative units called ‘Parganas’.
2. He established four main central departments: Diwan-i-wijarat (Finance Department); Diwan-i-arz (Military Department); Diwan-i-insha (Royal Secretariat); and Diwan-i-Rasalat (Department for religious and foreign affairs).
4. Ariz-i-mamalik headed the department named -Diwan-i-arz
5. Dabir headed the department named -Diwan-i-insha.
6. Qazi headed the department named - Diwani-Kaza.
7. Shiqdar-i-shiqadaran: maintain law and order.
8. Munshife-i-munshifan: supervise the revenue collection.
9. Shikdar: maintain law and order.
10. Amin: collect revenue.
11. Munsif: look after judicial matters.
12. He introduced a system of tri-metalism which came to characterise Mughal coinage (Silver coin) which was called 'Rupia'.Rupee is today used as the national currency in India, Indonesia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka among other countries.
13. He introduced copper coins which were called Dam, Half Dam and quarter Dam as per denomination.
14. He introduced regular postal services.
15. Peasants had to pay jaribana (survey charge) and muhasilana (tax collection charge). The rates of these charges were 2.5 per cent and 5 per cent respectively.
16. Constructed four important roads: Grand Trunk Road from Sonargaon to Peshawar; road from Agra to Multan via Burhanpur and Delhi; road from Multan to Lahore; and road from Mandu to Agra. These roads were lined with trees, wells and rest houses.
17. Sources of income were: Land revenue; Taxes on the transportation of raw and finished products; The Royal mint; Confiscation of the unclaimed property; Tributes from the rajas, nawabs jagirdars, etc.; Gifts from the foreign travellers; Salt tax; Jaziya on the Hindus; and One-fifth of the Kham (booty).