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Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems in India

31-JAN-2018 16:21
    Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems in India

    The choice of crop cultivation of farmer is guided by the factors like Physical, Social and Economic. Sometimes they cultivate a number of crops at their farms and rotate a particular crop combination over a period. But it is noteworthy that the best farming practices always followed by certain cropping patterns as well as cropping system for raising their productivity and also for maintaining the fertility of soil.

    Cropping pattern in India

    Cropping pattern is a dynamic concept because it changes over space and time. It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. In other words, it is a yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area. In India, the cropping pattern determined by rainfall, climate, temperature, soil type and technology.

    The cropping patterns in India can be presented by taking the major crops into consideration as the base crop and all other possible alternative crops. It is very important to identify crops and their showing agro-climatic condition so that they can be categorized. For example, wheat, barley and oats, are taken as one category.

    List of Food Grains and their required agro-climatic condition

    Food Grains

    Agro-Climatic Condition

    Rice

    Temperature: 22 -32 degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 150-300 cm

    Soil Type: Deep clayey and loamy soil

    Wheat

    Temperature: 10-15  degree Celsius (Sowing time)

    Temperature: 21-26  degree Celsius (Ripening & Harvesting)

    Rainfall: 75-100 cm

    Soil Type: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy

    Millets

    Temperature: 27-32  degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 50-100 cm

    Soil Type: They are less sensitive to soil deficiencies. They can be grown in inferior alluvial or loamy soil

    Grams

    Temperature: 20-25  degree Celsius (Mild cool & Dry Climate)

    Rainfall: 40-45 cm

    Soil Type: Loamy Soil

    Sugar Cane

    Temperature: 21-27  degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 75-150 cm

    Soil Type: Deep rich loamy soil

    Cotton

    Temperature: 21-30  degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 50-100 cm

    Soil Type: Black soil of Deccan and Malwa Plateau. However, it also grows well in alluvial soils of the Sutluj-Ganga plain and red and laterite soils of the peninsular region

    Oilseeds

    Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 50-75 cm

    Soil Type: Well drained light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils are well suited for its cultivation.

    Tea

    Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 150-300 cm

    Soil Type: Well drained, deep friable loamy soil.

    Coffee

    Temperature: 15-28  degree Celsius

    Rainfall: 150-250 cm

    Soil Type: Well drained, deep friable loamy soil.

    What are the factors responsible for the formation of Soil?

    Regional distribution of crops in India

     

     

    Cereals

    Wheat

    Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana

    Rice

    West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu

    Gram

    Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

    Barley

    Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan

    Bajra

    Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan

     

    Cash Crops

    Sugarcane

    Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra

    Poppy

    Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh

     

     

    Oil Seeds

    Coconut

    Kerala and Tamil Nadu

    Linseed

    Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

    Groundnut

    Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

    Rape & Mustard

    Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh

    Sesame

    Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan

    Sunflower

    Maharashtra and Karnataka

     

     

    Fibre Crops

    Cotton

    Maharashtra and Gujarat

    Jute

    West Bengal and Bihar

    Silk

    Karnataka and Kerala

    Hemp

    Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

     

     

    Plantations

    Coffee

    Karnataka and Kerala

    Rubber

    Kerala and Karnataka

    Tea

    Assam and Kerala

    Tobacco

    Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh

     

     

    Spices

    Pepper

    Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

    Cashew Nuts

    Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

    Ginger

    Kerala and Uttar Pradesh

    Turmeric

     Andhra Pradesh & Odisha

    How Organic Farming helps in Carbon Sequestration?

    Cropping System in India

    The Indian agriculture is decided by the soil types and climatic parameters which determine overall agro-ecological setting for nourishment and appropriateness of a crop or set of crops for cultivation. There are three distinct crop seasons in India, namely Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season started with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur are cultivated. The Rabi season starts with the onset of winter in October-November and ends in March-April. Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of Rabi crops. There are four cropping systems in India which is discussed below:

    1. Rainy Season Cropping Systems: In this system of cropping, Rice, Sorghum, Pearl Millet (Bajra), Maize, Groundnut and Cotton are grown.

    2. Winter Cropping Systems: In this system, wheat, barley and oats, sorghum and chickpea are grown.

    3. Plantation and other commercial crops: Sugarcane, Tobacco, Potato, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Coconut, Rubber, Spices and condiments are important crops are grown in this system.

    4. Mixed Cropping: In this system, pulses and some oilseeds are grown with maize, sorghum and pearl millet.

    Do you know the reason of daily variation of temperature

    Types of Cropping System in India

    There are three types of cropping system followed in India which is below:

    1. Mono-Cropping or Monoculture: In this system, only one crop is grown on farm land year after year.

    2. Multiple-Cropping: In this system, farmers grow two or more crops on farm land in one calendar year with intensive input management practices. It includes inter-cropping, mixed-cropping and sequence cropping.

    3. Inter-cropping: In this system, farmers grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in one calendar year.

    The Indian agricultural practices are still lacking by intensive planning because India has diversified agro-climatic zone, which is unfortunately not giving sufficient production. If our farming system relied on modern cropping pattern and cropping system, then we have a predominance of food grain crops, our farming will also inclined towards commercial crops and most importantly it will noticeable increase in the production of individual crops.

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