Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems in India

The choice of crop cultivation of farmer is guided by the factors like Physical, Social and Economic. Sometimes they cultivate a number of crops at their farms and rotate a particular crop combination over a period. Here, we are giving a brief note on the Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems in India, which will be helpful for the aspirants of the competitive exams like UPSC/PCS/SSC/CDS etc.
Created On: Mar 14, 2019 19:19 IST
Modified On: Mar 14, 2019 19:16 IST
Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems in India
Cropping Patterns and Cropping Systems in India

The Farmers chose the crops for the cultivation on the basis of the factors like Physical, Social and Economic. Sometimes they cultivate a number of crops at their farms and rotate a particular crop combination over a period. But it is noteworthy that the best farming practices always followed by certain cropping patterns as well as cropping system for raising their productivity and also for maintaining the fertility of soil.

Cropping pattern in India

Cropping pattern is a dynamic concept because it changes over space and time. It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. In other words, it is a yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area. In India, the cropping pattern determined by rainfall, climate, temperature, soil type and technology.

The cropping patterns in India can be presented by taking the major crops into consideration as the base crop and all other possible alternative crops. It is very important to identify crops and their showing agro-climatic condition so that they can be categorized. For example, wheat, barley and oats, are taken as one category.

Food Grains and their required agro-climatic condition

Food Grains

Agro-Climatic Condition

Rice

Temperature: 22 -32 degree Celsius

Rainfall: 150-300 cm

Soil Type: Deep clayey and loamy soil

Wheat

Temperature: 10-15  degree Celsius (Sowing time)

Temperature: 21-26  degree Celsius (Ripening & Harvesting)

Rainfall: 75-100 cm

Soil Type: Well-drained fertile loamy and clayey loamy

Millets

Temperature: 27-32  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 50-100 cm

Soil Type: They are less sensitive to soil deficiencies. They can be grown in inferior alluvial or loamy soil

Grams

Temperature: 20-25  degree Celsius (Mild cool & Dry Climate)

Rainfall: 40-45 cm

Soil Type: Loamy Soil

Sugar Cane

Temperature: 21-27  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 75-150 cm

Soil Type: Deep rich loamy soil

Cotton

Temperature: 21-30  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 50-100 cm

Soil Type: Black soil of Deccan and Malwa Plateau. However, it also grows well in alluvial soils of the Sutluj-Ganga plain and red and laterite soils of the peninsular region

Oilseeds

Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 50-75 cm

Soil Type: Well drained light sandy loams, red, yellow and black soils are well suited for its cultivation.

Tea

Temperature: 20-30  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 150-300 cm

Soil Type: Well drained, deep friable loamy soil.

Coffee

Temperature: 15-28  degree Celsius

Rainfall: 150-250 cm

Soil Type: Well drained, deep friable loamy soil.

What are the factors responsible for the formation of Soil?

Regional distribution of crops in India

 

 

Cereals

Wheat

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana

Rice

West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Tamil Nadu

Gram

Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Barley

Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan

Bajra

Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan

 

Cash Crops

Sugarcane

Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra

Poppy

Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh

 

 

Oil Seeds

Coconut

Kerala and Tamil Nadu

Linseed

Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

Groundnut

Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

Rape & Mustard

Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh

Sesame

Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan

Sunflower

Maharashtra and Karnataka

 

 

Fibre Crops

Cotton

Maharashtra and Gujarat

Jute

West Bengal and Bihar

Silk

Karnataka and Kerala

Hemp

Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Plantations

Coffee

Karnataka and Kerala

Rubber

Kerala and Karnataka

Tea

Assam and Kerala

Tobacco

Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh

 

 

Spices

Pepper

Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Cashew Nuts

Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

Ginger

Kerala and Uttar Pradesh

Turmeric

 Andhra Pradesh & Odisha

How Organic Farming helps in Carbon Sequestration?

Cropping System in India

The Indian agriculture is decided by the soil types and climatic parameters which determine overall agro-ecological setting for nourishment and appropriateness of a crop or set of crops for cultivation. There are three distinct crop seasons in India, namely Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season started with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur are cultivated. The Rabi season starts with the onset of winter in October-November and ends in March-April. Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of Rabi crops. There are four cropping systems in India which is discussed below:

1. Rainy Season Cropping Systems: In this system of cropping, Rice, Sorghum, Pearl Millet (Bajra), Maize, Groundnut and Cotton are grown.

2. Winter Cropping Systems: In this system, wheat, barley and oats, sorghum and chickpea are grown.

3. Plantation and other commercial crops: Sugarcane, Tobacco, Potato, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Coconut, Rubber, Spices and condiments are important crops are grown in this system.

4. Mixed Cropping: In this system, pulses and some oilseeds are grown with maize, sorghum and pearl millet.

Do you know the reason of daily variation of temperature

Types of Cropping System in India

There are three types of cropping system followed in India which is below:

1. Mono-Cropping or Monoculture: In this system, only one crop is grown on farm land year after year.

2. Multiple-Cropping: In this system, farmers grow two or more crops on farm land in one calendar year with intensive input management practices. It includes inter-cropping, mixed-cropping and sequence cropping.

3. Inter-cropping: In this system, farmers grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in one calendar year.

The Indian agricultural practices are still lacking by intensive planning because India has diversified agro-climatic zone, which is unfortunately not giving sufficient production. If our farming system relied on modern cropping pattern and cropping system, then we have a predominance of food grain crops, our farming will also inclined towards commercial crops and most importantly it will noticeable increase in the production of individual crops.

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