Cultural Development during Mughal Era
Mughal ruler such as Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir were known to spread cultural development in our country. The maximum works in these fields were done during Mughal rule. Mughal rulers were fond of culture; therefore all were in the support of spreading education. The Mughal traditions highly influenced the palaces and forts of many regional and local kingdoms.
Mughal Emperor’s Work:
Babur: He was a great scholar and had taken up a responsibility of building up of schools and colleges in his empire.
Humayun: He had huge love for books, of subject related to stars and natural features; he also built, many Madarsa next to Delhi, so that people's can go there and learn.
Akbar: He made to build a large number of colleges and schools at Agra and also at Fatehpur Sikri for high learning, as he wants that every single person of his empire would receive an education.
Jahangir: He was a great researcher of the languages like Turki and Persian and he also had written a book Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri, expressing all his memories.
According to Dr. Srivastava, “The Mughal government did not had any department of education, to make sure that every child would go to school or college. During Mughal reign education is like a private affair, where people had made their own engagements for educating their children.”
Also, there are separate schools for both Hindus and Muslims, and their customs of sending children to school are poles apart.
Hindu Education: Primary schools for Hindus’ were maintained by grants or endowments, for which pupils would not have to give fees.
Muslim Education: The Muslims used to send their children to Maktabs for getting education, which were closed to the mosque and these types of school existed in every town and village. At the primary standard, every child had to learn the Quran.
Women Education: Private tutors for education of their daughters were being arranged by nobles at home, as women did not have any right to educate beyond the primary standard.
Persian: Akbar brings out the level of Persian to status of the state language, which lead to the growth of literature.
Sanskrit: Work in Sanskrit could not be shaped up to the level as desired by Mughals, during the rule of the Mughals.
Golden period for the development of painting in India is considered to be a Mughal period.
Different kinds of school for teaching Art were as follows:
School of Old Tradition: Ancient style of painting was flourished in India prior to sultanate period. But this tradition seemed to get decayed, after the eighth century, and from the thirteen century palm-leaf manuscripts and the Jain texts illustration shows that tradition had not died.
Mughal Painting: The school developed by Akbar during the Mughal rule act as a centre of production.
European Painting: Portuguese priest introduced European painting at the court of Akbar.
Rajasthan School of Painting: This form of painting involves the combination of the present ideas and the former traditions of western India and the of Jain school of painting with different style of Mughal paintings.
Pahari School of Painting: This school sustained the Rajasthan styles of painting and had played an important role in its development.
This proved to be the one and only intermediate of the Hindu-Muslim unity, during the Mughal Rule. Akbar patronizes Tansen of Gwalior, in his court. Tansen was a person who was credited with composing of many new Melodies and Ragas.
Architectural Developments during Mughal Era:
In the field of architecture, Mughal period was proved out to be a period of glory, as during this period many formal gardens with running water has been laid out.
Architectural development by various Mughal Emperors was as follows:
Babur: He was very loving about the gardens; therefore he laid out many gardens in the neighbourhood of Agra and Lahore. Some of the examples of Mughal garden, developed during the rule of Babur were Nishal Bagh in Kashmir, the Shalimar at Lahore, the Pinjore garden in the Punjab, and these gardens are still survived to this day.
Akbar: Akbar was the first Mughal ruler, during whose rule; the construction went on a huge scale. His constructions included a series the most famous fort at Agra and Massive Red fort, which had many magnificent gates.
Jahangir: During his rule the Mughal architecture reached on its climax and the practice of putting up marble in the entire building and decorating the walls with floral designs semi-precious stones, became famous. This method of decoration is called pietra dura, which became even more popular under Shah Jahan who used it on a large scale, during the construction of Taj Mahal, which was regarded as a jewel of the builder art.
Shah Jahan: All the architectural form, which was developed by Mughals, came together in a pleasant manner during the construction of The Taj Mahal. Humayun’s tomb which was built at Delhi just before the beginning of Akbar’s reign, had an enormous dome of marbles, and can be considered as a ancestor of the Taj Mahal. Another feature of this building was the double dome.
Aurangzeb: As Aurangzeb was money minded ruler, not many buildings were constructed during his reign. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, a Mughal architectural tradition was based on a mixture of Hindu and Turko-lranian forms and decorative designs.
Thus, one can say that the Mughal traditions highly influenced the palaces and forts of many regional and local kingdoms.