Evolution is the sequence of gradual changes which takes place in the primitive organisms over millions of years in which new species are produced. Evolution takes place in living organisms and so is known as organic evolution. In fact all the plants and animals or organisms which we see today around us have evolved from some or the other ancestors that lived on this earth long, long ago. There are several evidences and theories of evolution which are discussed in this article in the form of questions and answers.
1. Who had given the theory of evolution of species by natural selection?
Charles Robert Darwin gave the theory of evolution in his book “The Origin of Species”. The theory proposed by him is known as “The Theory of Natural Selection”.
2. Who is known as the father of genetics?
D. Marie Curie
Gregor Mendel is termed as the father of genetics because he has discovered the basic principles of heredity.
3. Which of the following are the sources which provide evidences for evolution?
A. Homologous organs
B. Analogous organs
D. All the above
The important sources which provide evidences for evolution are homologous organs, analogous organs and fossils.
4. Name a fossil bird which looks like a bird but has many other features found in reptiles?
D. Mouse Bird
Archaeopteryx is a fossil bird which looks like a bird but it has many other features which are found in reptiles.
5. Name the organs which have different basic structure but have similar appearance and perform similar functions?
A. Analogous organs
B. Homologous organs
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
Analogous organs have different basic structure but have similar appearance and perform similar functions. Example wings of an insect and a bird have different structures but similar functions.
Do you know how human brain works?
6. Who suggested that life must have developed from the simple inorganic molecules like methane, hydrogen etc. which were present on the earth soon after it was formed?
B. Marrie Curie
D. None of the above
J.B.S Haldane, a British scientist suggested in 1929 that life must have developed from the simple inorganic molecules like methane, hydrogen etc. which were present on the earth soon after it was formed.
7. Aves have evolved from:
Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic around 165–150 million years ago. Birds aren't just closely related to dinosaurs, they really are dinosaurs! This is what most people mean when they say that birds are reptiles, although technically according to the phylogenetic system mammals are also reptiles.
8. The theory of origin of life on earth is proposed by:
B. Stanley Miller
C. Harold C. Urey
The theory of origin of life on earth is proposed by Haldane was confirmed by the experiments conducted by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey.
9. Which of the following are the postulates of Darwin’s theory of evolution?
A. Within any population, there is natural variation.
B. Even though all species produce a large number of offsprings, populations remain fairly constant naturally.
C. The struggle for survival within populations eliminates the unfit individuals.
D. All the above are correct
Darwin’s theory of evolution can be described as: within any population, there is natural variation. Some individuals have more favourable variations than others. Even though all species produce a large number of offsprings, populations remain fairly constant naturally. The struggle for survival within populations eliminates the unfit individuals. This is called natural selection.
10. The process by which new species develop from the existing species is called:
D. Genetic variation
Speciation is the formation of new species.
From the above article we have seen what is evolution, theory related to the evolution etc. in the form of questions and answers.