Faunal region, also called Zoogeographic Region which can be defined by the geographers on the basis of distinctive animal life.
The leading ecologist and environmentalist A.R. Wallace attempted to classify the world animals into fauna regions in 1876. Since then a number of attempts have been made by the ecologists to delineate the faunal regions of the world. The experts divide the world into the following faunal regions.
This faunal region stretches over the greater parts of Europe and Eurasia, north of Himalayas. This faunal region includes 136 families of vertebrates, 100 genera of mammals, 174 genera of birds. The important animals of this region are Russian desmans, arctic-fox, arctic-hare, caribou, reindeer, polar bear; Mediterranean moles, rats, saiga and chiru antelope, ancestors of crocodiles, lizards, moose, mole, deer, lemming, musk-fox, Lynx, wild-ass, horse, camel, hamster, jackal, etc., red-fox, black bear, hedge-hog, jerboa, cotton-tail, etc.
2. Nearctic Region
This faunal region sprawls over North America, Greenland and the Canadian Islands west of Greenland. This is also known as the Arctic Fauna Region. The main animals of this region include deer, lynx, mouse, mules, wolf; bison, jack-rabbit, prairie-dog, gopher, fox; lizards, snakes, kangaroo, jerboa, hamster, hedgehog, cotton- tail, etc.
3. Oriental Region
The oriental region sprawls to the south of Himalayas in South and South-East Asia. Climatically this region falls in the tropical climate. This faunal region represents 164 families of vertebrates, 118 genera of mammals and 340 genera of birds. The main animals of this faunal region are Indian-elephants, rhino, several species of deer, antelopes, tigers, lizards, snakes, gibbons, monkeys, sun-bear, stag, tree-shrew, etc.
4. Ethiopian Region
This faunal region stretches over the greater parts of the continent of Africa, excluding the Mediterranean region. It also covers the adjacent islands like Madagascar. This region represents 174 families of vertebrates, 140 genera of mammals, and 294 genera of birds. The main animals of this region include springbok, jerboa, zebra, gnu, giraffe, elephant, ostrich, lions, cheetah, gorilla, chimpanzee, monkey, forest elephants, etc.
5. Australian Region
The Australian region stretches over the continent of Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and the adjacent islands. There are 141 families of vertebrates.
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