Human Settlement is a form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. In other words, it is a process of opening up and settling on a previously uninhabited area by the people. People live in clusters of houses that might be a village, a town or a city. Here, we are giving ‘Summary on the Settlements and Urbanization in India’ which is very useful as GK study material for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
1. Types of the settlement are determined by the extent of the built-up area and inter-house distance. In India settlements are broadly classified into two major categories rural settlements and urban settlements.
2. Rural settlements in India can be broadly classified as clustered, agglomerated or nucleated, semi-clustered or fragmented, helmeted and dispersed or isolated.
3. Clustered settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the North-Eastern states.
4. Semi-clustered settlements are found mainly in Ganga-Yamuna doabs, Khadar plains, etc.
5. Dispersed settlement or isolated settlement pattern in India appears in the remote jungles or on small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes.
6. Census of India 2011, defines the urban areas as statutory towns and Census towns. Statutory towns are all places with a municipality, corporation, and cantonment board or notified the town area committee, etc.
7. Census towns are places having a minimum population of 5000, at least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits and a density of population of at least 400 per sq. km.
8. Urban agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining out-growths and the agglomeration must consist of at least a statutory town with a population not less than 20,000 as per census 2001. Ex. Greater Mumbai UA, Delhi UA, etc.
9. In India, urban places with population exceeding 1,00,000 are called class-I towns or cities by convention and these are 468 in number and constitute 70% of total urban population. Population by 50,000 to 99,999 is called class-II, populations between 20,000 to 49,999 are called class-III, populations of 10,000 to 19999 are called class-IV, populations of 5,000 to 9,999 are called class-V and populations below 5000 are called class-VI towns.
10. Towns with population one million or more are known as million plus cities and are 53 in number constitute 42.6% of urban population. Cities with population more than 10 million are called mega cities and are 3 only, Greater Mumbai, Delhi UA and Kolkata UA.
11. Out of the total population of 121 crore India has more than 833 million rural population (68.84%) and more than 377 million urban population (31.16%). In the previous decade 2010-11, urban population increased more (91m) than rural population (90.4m).
12. Largest urban population dwells in Maharashtra-50.8 million (13.5%) followed by Uttar Pradesh 44.4 million (11.8%) and Tamil Nadu 34.9 million (9.3%). Goa and Mizoram are the states in the country, which are more urban than rural.
13. According to the Census 2011, the urban sex ratio is worse than that in rural areas but appreciably improved from 900 in 2001 to 926 in 2011, in the mean time rural sex ratio gains only 1 point from 946 in 2001 to 947 in 2011.