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NCERT Exemplar Solution for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 6: Life Processes (Part-II)

May 19, 2017 11:47 IST

    Class 10 NCERT Exemplar, NCERT Exemplar SolutionHere you get the CBSE Class 10 Science chapter 6, Life Processes: NCERT Exemplar Problems and Solutions (Part-II). This part of the chapter includes solutions for Question No.36 to 72 from the NCERT Exemplar Problems for Class 10 Science Chapter: Life Processes. These questions include only the Short Answer Type Questions framed from various important topics of the chapter.

    NCERT Exemplar Solution for CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 6: Life Processes (Part-I)

    NCERT Exemplar problems are a very good resource for preparing the critical questions like Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) questions. All these questions are very important to prepare for CBSE Class 10 Science Board Examination 2017-2018 as well as other competitive exams.

    Find below the NCERT Exemplar problems and their solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter, Life Processes:

    Short Answer Type Questions

    Question. 36 Name the following

    (a) The process in plants that links light energy with chemical energy.

    (b) Organisms that can prepare their own food.

    (c) The cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs.

    (d) Cells that surround a stomatal pore.

    (e) Organisms that cannot prepare their own food

    (f) An enzyme secreted from gastric glands in stomach that acts on proteins.

    Answer.

    (a) Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process wherein carbon dioxide as chief carbon source and water as electron donor to fix the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds (carbohydrates) i.e. conversion of light energy into chemical energy.

     (b) Autotrophs Autotrophs are the organisms that use light as source of energy, carbon dioxide as chief carbon source and water as electron donor to fix the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds (carbohydrates).

    (c) Chloroplasts it is a double membrane bound organelle that contain machinery for photosynthesis.

    (d) Guard cells Each stomatal pore is surrounded by two guard cells that assist in stomatal opening driven by turgidity of guard cells.

    (e) Heterotrophs The organisms that cannot make their own food from inorganic substances and depend on other organisms for their food.

    (f) Pepsin A protein digesting enzyme.

    CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus 2017-2018

    Question. 37 All plants give out oxygen during day and carbon dioxide during night". Do you agree with this statement? Give reason.

    Answer. True. Respiration is the process of oxidation of food substances that release carbon dioxide; it takes place throughout the day. Photosynthesis is the process of fixing the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds (carbohydrates) with release of oxygen gas as by product. Photosynthesis takes place during day in presence of Sunlight only. Hence, plants release oxygen during day only while carbon dioxide is released during night.

    Question. 38 How do the guard cells regulate opening and closing of stomatal pores?

    Answer.

    Each stomatal pore is surrounded by two guard cells that assist in stomatal opening driven by turgidity of guard cells. The guard cells are the only epidermal cells with unevenly thickened walls and chloroplasts. When water flows in guard cells from epidermal cells, guard cells become turgid and stomata are opened. Loss of water from guard cells makes them flaccid and stomata are closed.

    stomatal pores and guard cell

    Question. 39 Two green plants are kept separately in oxygen free containers, one the dark and the other in continuous light. Which one will live longer? Give reasons.

    Answer.

    Respiration and photosynthesis are the two vital processes for plant life. The plant kept in light would be able to produce oxygen, required for respiration, by the process of photosynthesis and would live longer. The one kept in dark would die as soon as the container becomes filled with carbon dioxide gas produced by respiration.

    Question. 40 If a plant is releasing carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen during the day, does it mean that there is no photosynthesis occurring? Justify your answer.

    Answer.

    Respiration is the process of oxidation of food substances that release carbon dioxide; it takes place throughout the day. Photosynthesis is the process of fixing the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds (carbohydrates) with release of oxygen gas as by product. Photosynthesis takes place during day in presence of Sunlight only.

    The CO2 released during respiration is absorbed by plants for photosynthesis in day causing net released of oxygen only. If a plant is releasing carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen during the day, it means that either rate of photosynthesis is too slow to counter balance the released of CO2 by respiration or photosynthesis is not taking place at all.

    Question. 41 Why do fishes die when taken out of water?

    Answer.

    Gills are the organ of gaseous exchange in fishes as they have two chambered heart and heart pump the deoxygenated blood to gills. Rich in blood capillaries, these gills serve as surface for exchange of CO2 and oxygen between deoxygenated blood and surrounding. As they are taken out of water, gills are no longer able to absorb oxygen causing its death.

    Question. 42 Differentiate between an autotroph and a heterotroph.

    Answer.

    Autotrophs are the organisms that use light as source of energy, carbon dioxide as chief carbon source and water as electron donor to fix the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds (carbohydrates). Heterotrophs are the organisms that depend on available organic compounds and cannot carry out the photosynthesis.

    Presence of photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll and carotenoids enable autotrophs to trap the Sunlight to carry out the light reactions of photosynthesis. Heterotrophs lack these pigments.

    Since autotrophs are the only organisms that can fix the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds, these organisms occupies first trophic level in food chain and serve as source of food and energy for organisms of higher trophic levels. Heterotrophs occupy the higher trophic level and function as consumers.

    Question. 43 Is 'nutrition' a necessity for an organism? Discuss.

    Answer.
    Need of nutrition for an organism is for:

    (a) To serve as energy source for metabolic processes in the body.

    (b) To support growth of new cells and repair and maintenance of existing cells.

    (c) To provide resistance against various diseases.

    Question. 44 What would happen if green plants disappear from earth?

    Answer.

    Green plants are autotrophs are that use light as source of energy, carbon dioxide as chief carbon source and water as electron donor to fix the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds (carbohydrates). The carbohydrates which are not immediately consumed by plants are stored as starch.

    Since autotrophs are the only organisms that can fix the atmospheric carbon dioxide into organic compounds, these organisms occupies first trophic level in food chain and serve as source of food and energy for all other organisms of higher trophic levels (heterotrophs/consumers). 

    Hence, in absence of these plants, whole functioning of whole ecosystem will come to hault due to lack of food and energy source for consumers (herbivores, carnivores and omnivores)

    Question. 45 Leaves of a healthy potted plant were coated with vaseline. Will this plant remain healthy for long? Give reasons for your answer.

    Answer.

    Coating of Vaseline will make the leaves impervious to gases and water. This will result in adverse impact on it because

     (a) Plant will not be able to take in oxygen for respiration and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.

    (c) Since transpiration pull drive the upward movement of water and minerals in xylem, water transport will be hampered. 

    Question. 46 How does aerobic respiration differ from anaerobic respiration?

    Answer.

    The aerobic respiration differ from anaerobic respiration is as

    Aerobic Respiration

    Anaerobic Respiration

    Complete breakdown of food in presence of oxygen

    Incomplete breakdown of food substances in absence of oxygen

    Results in formation of Carbon dioxide and water.

    Ethanol and carbon dioxide or lactic acids are the end products.

    It occurs in three steps: glycolysis (cytoplasm), citric acid cycle (mitochondrial matrix) and electron transport chain (inner mitochondrial membrane).

    It occurs in two steps both of which take place in cytoplasm only.

     

    Huge amount of energy is released due to complete oxidation of glucose.

    Less energy is released due to incomplete oxidation of glucose.

     

    Question. 47 Match the words of column (A) with that of column (B).

    Column (A)

    Column (B)

    (a) Phloem

    (i) Excretion

    (b) Nephron

    (ii) Translocation of food

    (c) Veins

    (iii) Clotting of blood

    (d) Platelets

    (iv) Deoxygenated blood

    Answer.

    Words of column (A) are matched with that of column (B) as below:

    Column (A)

    Column (B)

    (a) Phloem

    (ii) Translocation of food

    (b) Nephron

    (i) Excretion

    (c) Veins

    (iv) Deoxygenated blood

    (d) Platelets

    (iii) Clotting of blood

    Question. 48 Differentiate between an artery and a vein.

    Answer.

    The differentiate between an artery and a vein are as below\

    S. No.

    Artery

    Vein

    1.

    Presence of thick elastic, muscular walls with narrow lumen.

    Have thin, non-elastic walls with wide lumen.

    2.

    Thick walls enable them to withstand higher blood pressure as blood is pumped directly from heart into arteries.

    Since blood is pumped from different body parts in vein, blood pressure is much lower.

    3.

    Serve to carry oxygenated blood from heart to other body parts (except pulmonary artery).

    Serve to carry deoxygenated blood from all body parts to heart (except pulmonary veins).

    4.

    Valves are absent.

    Presence of valves prevents backflow of blood.

    Question. 49 What are the adaptations of leaf for photosynthesis?

    Answer.

    Leaves shows following adaptations for photosynthesis

    (a) Leaves serve to provide large surface area to facilitate maximum light absorption.

    (b) The extensive network of veins helps quick transport of substances to and from the mesophyll cells.

    (c) Leaves contain chloroplasts, the site for photosynthesis. Since upper surface of leaves are directly illuminated, number of chloroplast is higher in the upper surface.

    (d) Presence of tiny pores called as stomata on leaf's surface facilitate gaseous exchange and transpiration.

    Question. 50 Why is small intestine in herbivores longer than in carnivores?

    Answer.

    Herbivores derive their nutrition from plants and plants product which in turn make cellulose main component of their diet. Since cellulose digestion is a long process and is done by intestinal ruminant bacteria present in gut of herbivores, complete digestion of cellulose need the food to stay for longer time in gut. Presence of longer intestine serves the purpose and allows the food to stay for longer duration to facilitate proper digestion of cellulose.

    Carnivores feed on herbivores and hence cellulose is not part of their diet which in turn causes no need of longer intestine.

    Question. 51 What will happen if mucus is not secreted by the gastric glands?

    Answer.

    The gastric glands of stomach produce gastric juice, which contains pepsinogen, HCl, and mucus. HCl impart highly acidic pH to stomach which in turn supports conversion of inactive pepsinogen into active pepsin.

    Mucus plays an important role and protects the inner lining of stomach against erosion from hydrochloric acid produced in the stomach. In absence of mucus, HCl will cause erosion and ulcer in stomach lining.

    Question. 52 What is the significance of emulsification of fats?

    Answer.

    Fats are large complex biomolecules present in form of large globules which in turn does not support enzymatic action on them.

    Bile is secreted by liver and is stored in gall bladder. Ducts from the gallbladder and pancreas join to form common duct that enters the duodenum. The small intestine receives bile from the gallbladder via this common duct.

    Bile salts carry out mechanical digestion of large fat globules into smaller ones which are then acted upon by intestinal lipase for complete digestion.

    Question. 53 What causes movement of food inside the alimentary canal?

    Answer.

    Peristalsis is rhythmic contraction of muscular wall of alimentary canal which in turn pushes the food along the alimentary canal. Peristalsis begins in the esophagus and continues in all the organs of the alimentary canal.

    NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 10 Science

    Question. 54 Why does absorption of digested food occur mainly in the small intestine?

    Answer.

    Absorption of digested food occurs mainly in small intestine because:

    (a) Chemical and mechanical digestion of food reaches to completion in small intestine

    (b) The fingerlike projection of mucosa into lumen of small intestine as called as villi which in turn serve to increase the surface area to facilitate maximum absorption of digested food.

    (c) Wall of small intestine is richly supplied with blood vessels which take the absorbed food to different body part.

    Question. 55 Match the words of column (A) with column (B).

    Column (A)

    Column (B)

    (a) Autotrophic nutrition

    (i) Leech

    (b) Heterotrophic nutrition

    (ii) Paramecium

    (c) Parasitic nutrition

    (iii) Deer

    (d) Digestion in food vacuoles

    (iv) Green Plant

    Answer.

    Words of column (A) are matched with that of column (B) as below:

    Column (A)

    Column (B)

    (a) Autotrophic nutrition

    (iv) Green Plant

    (b) Heterotrophic nutrition

    (iii) Deer

    (c) Parasitic nutrition

    (i) Leech

    (d) Digestion in food vacuoles

    (ii) Paramecium

    Question. 56 Why is the rate of breathing in aquatic organisms much faster than in terrestrial organisms?

    Answer.

    Aquatic organisms depend on dissolved oxygen in water while terrestrial organisms absorb oxygen air. Since concentration of dissolved oxygen is much lower as compared to that of oxygen present in air, aquatic organisms breathe faster to meet the demand of oxygen.

    Aquatic organisms have same surface for absorption of oxygen and gaseous exchange while terrestrial organisms are at advantage as they have different organs for breathing and gaseous exchange.

    Question. 57 Why is blood circulation in human heart called double circulation?

    Answer.

    Human heart has four completely separated chambers which allow two completely separated circuits of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; hence the name, double circulation.

    The pulmonary circuit includes flow of blood through heart-lung-heart while systemic circuit includes heart-rest of the body-heart. This ensures that left side of heart receives and pumps only oxygenated blood while the right side receives and pumps only deoxygenated blood.

    The blood circulation in human heart is called double circulation because the blood passes through the heart twice during one complete cardiac cycle of the body.

    Question. 58 What is the advantage of having four chambered heart?

    Answer.

    Human heart has four completely separated chambers which allow two completely separated circuits of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood i.e. double circulation.

    (a) It ensures complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

    (b) It allows rapid pumping of oxygenated blood under high pressure which is required by active endothermic animals to maintain the constant body temperature.

    Question. 59 Mention the major events during photosynthesis.

    Answer.

    The major events during photosynthesis are

    (a) Light reaction:

    Absorption of sunlight energy by main and accessory photosynthetic pigments  (chl a, b,c and carotenoids)

    Oxidation of water into oxygen and hydrogen driven by light energy and preservation of released energy in form of ATP and NADPH

    (b) Dark reaction:

    Reduction of CO2 to produce carbohydrates using energy of ATP and NADPH.

    Question. 60 In each of the following situations what happens to the rate of photosynthesis?

    (a) Cloudy days

    (b) No rainfall in the area

    (c) Good manuring in the area

    (d) Stomata get blocked due to dust

    Answer.

    (a) Cloudy days will cause the rate of photosynthesis to decrease due to the low availability of Sunlight.

    (b) No rainfall in the area will cause the rate of photosynthesis to decrease due to the low availability of water.

    (c) Good manuring in the area will cause the rate of photosynthesis to decrease due to the improved availability of minerals necessary for plant growth and development.

    (d) Stomata get blocked due to dust will cause the rate of photosynthesis to decrease due to the disturbed carbon dioxide intake through stomata.

    Question. 61 Name the energy currency in the living organisms. When and where is it produced?

    Answer.

    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the energy currency in the living organisms. Cellular respiration is complete oxidation of food substances into carbon dioxide and water to release the stored energy. The final stage of cellular respiration is the step wise flow of electrons through or within a membrane from a reduced compound (NADH and FADH2) to electron acceptor (oxygen) accompanied by ATP synthesis. It occurs in inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Question. 62 What is common for Cuscuta, ticks and leeches?

    Answer.

    Cuscuta ticks and leeches, all are parasites. Parasitism is association of two organisms wherein one (parasite) is benefitted at the cost of other partner (host).

    Question. 63 Explain the role of mouth in digestion of food.

    Answer.

    (a) The teeth serve the function of mechanical digestion by chewing and grinding.

    (b) Three pairs of salivary glands in mouth secrete saliva which contain bicarbonate ions and salivary amylase. Salivary amylase starts the chemical digestion of starch into maltose in mouth itself.

    (c) Tongue serves in mixing of food with saliva.

    Question. 64 What are the functions of gastric glands present in the wall of the stomach?

    Answer.

    The gastric glands of stomach produce gastric juice, which contains pepsinogen, HCl, and mucus.

    HCl impart highly acidic pH to stomach which in turn supports conversion of inactive pepsinogen into active pepsin.

    Mucus plays an important role and protects the inner lining of stomach against erosion from hydrochloric acid produced in the stomach.

    Pepsinogen is inactive precursor of pepsin and is first converted into active form in acidic environment of stomach to start protein digestion.

    Question. 65 Match the words of column (A) with column (B).

    Column (A)

    Column (B)

    (a) Trypsin

    (i) Pancreas

    (b) Amylase

    (ii) Liver

    (c) Bile

    (iii) Gastric Glands

    (d) Pepsin

    (iv) Saliva

    Answer.

    Words of column (A) are matched with that of column (B) as below:

    Column (A)

    Column (B)

    (a) Trypsin

    (i) Pancreas

    (b) Amylase

    (iv) Saliva

    (c) Bile

    (ii) Liver

    (d) Pepsin

    (iii) Gastric Glands

    Question. 66 Name the correct substrates for the following enzymes

    (a) Trypsin

    (b)Amylase

    (c) Pepsin

    (d) Lipase

    Answer.

    (a) Trypsin: Proteins (peptides)

    (b)Amylase: Starch

    (c) Pepsin: Proteins

    (d) Lipase: Emulsified fats

    Question. 67 Why do veins have thin walls as compared to arteries?

    Answer.

    The thick elastic walls of arteries serve to withstand the high blood pressure as blood is pumped directly from heart into them. On the other hand, veins serve to carry oxygen poor blood from different body parts to heart and thus, do not need thick walls as blood pressure is very low in them.

    Question. 68 What will happen if platelets were absent in the blood?

    Answer.

    Platelets are the cellular component of blood that serves in the constriction of broken blood vessels and coagulation. In absence of platelets, the injured blood vessels would cause leakage of blood as well as the process of blood clotting would not occur at the place of wound. The overall effect would be excessive blood loss causing even death.

    Question. 69 Plants have low energy needs as compared to animals. Explain.

    Answer.

    Plants are stationary and exhibit movement in terms of growth and development only i.e.at cellular level. In addition, plants have dead scleranchymatous cells in many of their organ which in turn produce mechanical strength but are not involved in cellular process because of being dead. Animals move from one place to another and have lesser fraction of dead cells in their body. This poses high demand of energy for them as compared to plants.

    Question. 70 Why and how does water enter continuously into the root xylem?

    Answer.

    When soil moisture is high, movement of water and dissolved minerals from soil into root hair and finally to the root xylem cells build up root pressure which in turn pushes the water up the xylem vessels. The increased soil moisture and the high root pressure causes increased rate of water absorption which in turn forces water droplets to come out from stomata. Stomatal transpiration creates transpiration pull which in turn carry the water and minerals up in stem thereby decreasing root pressure.

    Question. 71 Why is transpiration important for plants?

    Answer.

    (i) It creates transpiration pull required for absorption and upward movement of water and minerals from roots to leaves.

    (ii) The cooling effect as provided by transpiration prevents the plant parts from heating up.

    Question.72 How do leaves of plants help in excretion?

    Answer.

    (a) Stomatal transpiration removes the gaseous waste of respiration and photosynthesis.

    (b) Most of waste products are stored in large central vacuoles. Shedding of old senescing leaves help eradication of these wastes from the plant body.

    You may also like to read:

    CBSE Class 10 NCERT Textbooks & NCERT Solutions

    NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 10 Maths

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