A literate person is known to be someone who can read, write or speak clearly in a comprehensible and concise manner. As and when a person comes across new words, if those words are not implemented in a day-to-day life then, there might be a possibility of forgetting that particular word. The growth of vocabulary takes place when a person knows the meaning of the word, knows correct spelling and its usage. The size of the vocabulary is directly proportional to how much you read. One should not delve into difficult jargons or thick books, rather pick a story book or a novel which you enjoy reading and spending your time with. These unusual connections can help you build image memory system, which will further help to increase word retention. Therefore, in order to be a better communicator or speaker, reading is one the crucial ingredients.
Article: A chill pill that India needs
The domestic pharmaceutical sector witnessed a compound annual growth rate of 12% during 2012-16. It registered its highest growth of 15% in 2015. However, since then, it is on the decline for two consecutive periods: to 11% for 2016 and further to 9% ending in February 2017. Not only should this be a matter of concern for the government, but it should also worry those working for access to safe, effective and quality medicines at affordable prices for the people of India and other developing countries.
The decline in rate of growth can be directly linked to the arbitrary implementation of pricing policy by the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) and certain policy initiatives of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO). Unless corrected, the aberrations will continue to erode the sector’s growth. It may be a coincidence that both regulators have worked in tandem and hit the growth driver of the sector.
The biggest contributor to growth, accounting for 50%, of the sector is new introductions, followed by volume (33%) and price (17%). The NPPA knew where it would hurt the sector most. It, therefore, came up with a set of revised guidelines for application for price fixation and revision of a ‘new drug’ formulation related to the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) formulation. It had the intended effect.
The guidelines have led to delay and denial of price approvals for several new introductions. This was further compounded by the NPPA in February 2017 when it notified not to entertain applications for retail price fixation of new introductions, representations against price calculation sheets, etc, unless certain information was furnished online through the Integrated Pharmaceutical Database Management Systems (IPDMS).
This would result in further slowdown as the industry is not ready to implement it. The system is cumbersome.
Its compliance is even more difficult. Unlike annual returns, the system requires day-to-day online feeding. The companies believe that they are in the business of manufacturing and selling their products, not filing of daily returns.
Frivolous litigations by patent holders have delayed the development and launch of new generics. This has denied Indian companies the benefit of the ‘first-to-file’ provision in the US. This, in turn, has resulted in the loss of revenue and market leadership. It has also delayed access to affordable generics to the public.
Unsettled by arbitrary implementation of the pricing policy, many Indian companies have been increasingly investing in setting up and acquiring manufacturing facilities abroad, thereby not only slowing down investment in the country but also taking jobs out of India.
To add to the woes of the sector, it is now proposed that sale of ‘single salt’ formulation should be in ‘salt name’ only. This would shift the choice of a product from medical professionals to chemists, compromising patient interest, as all products are not of uniform quality.
More than half of India’s exports of pharmaceuticals are branded products. The popular brands in the domestic market enjoy certain brand equity in other emerging markets too. If India were to eliminate brands for ‘single salt’ formulations, exports will suffer, as the domestic industry will lose its product identity. Moreover, many countries emulate India for policies governing the pharma sector.
Brands may also be done away with, thereby eliminating product differentiation. This would put Indian manufacturers at a significant disadvantage in export markets vis-à-vis imports from other countries and local manufacturers. It is time that policymakers wake up to the decline in the rates of growth and the damage that the new policy initiatives may cause to a sunrise sector of India.
1. Arbitrary (adjective) (मनमाना): Arbitrary is based on chance rather than being planned or based on a reason.
Synonym: Whimsical, capricious, discretionary, erratic
Antonym: Consistent, logical, definite, dependable
Sentence: Pursuing acting was one of his arbitrary decisions.
2. Aberrations (noun) (असामान्यता): Aberration is a temporary change from the typical or usual way of behaving.
Synonym: Oddity, peculiarity, quirk, delusion
Antonym: Normality, usualness, conformity, regularity
Sentence: The terror attack in the Uri district led to the state of aberration.
3. In Tandem (noun/adverb/adjective) (एक के पीछे एक): Intandem is something which is happening at the same time or having two things arranged in front of each other.
Synonym: Lineup, squad, aggregation, band
Antonym: Individual, single, teammate, one
Sentence: We took an in tandem vacation to Venice.
4. Intended (adjective/noun) (भावी पत्नी या पति): Intended is something that has been planned, or is going to happen in the future.
Synonym: Engaged, calculated, contracted, expected
Antonym: Accidental, unplanned, incidental, unintended
Sentence: She used to be my intended but we broke up.
5. Cumbersome (adjective) (जटिल): Cumbersome is something which is difficult to do or manage and taking a lot of time and effort.
Synonym: Clumsy, bulky, embarrassing, ponderous
Antonym: Aiding, convenient, easy, helpful
Sentence: With the cumbersome organizational structure, the organization will definitely collapse one day.
6. Compliance (noun) (अनुकूलता): Compliance refers to following a rule or order or an act of confirming.
Synonym: Conformity, consent, assent, concurrence
Antonym: Difference, disagreement, refusal, disobedience
Sentence: It is commendable that the police offers were able to take control of the chaotic situation and maintained order and compliance.
7. Generics (noun) (जातीय): Generic is defined as something that refers or relates to a whole class.
Synonym: Apparently, clearly, collectively, commonly
Antonym: Exclusive, limited, restricted, confined
Sentence: Off late, the political parties have started a lot of wave of generic statements related to the country’s integral issues.
8. Frivolous (adjective) (ओछा): Frivolous refers to behaving in a silly way or not taking anything seriously.
Synonym: Trivial, foolish, idiotic, impractical
Antonym: Intelligent, sensible, wise, grave
Sentence: His frivolous attitude was looked down upon by everyone at the society.
9. Litigations (noun) (मुक़दमा): Litigation is the process of taking a case to a court of law so that a judgement can be made.
Synonym: Dispute, lawsuit, prosecution, trial
Antonym: Cohesion, compromise, accord, truce
Sentence: There are several litigations which are still pending at the court.
10.Emulate (verb) (अनुकरण करना): Emulate is to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have.
Synonym: Imitate, mimic, mirror, out vie
Antonym: Neglect, jostle, condemn, divest
Sentence: I don’t think that she knows anything about makeup, she is just trying to emulate the random things which she learned watching YouTube videos.
Question (1-5): Answer the following as directed.
1.Find out the words which mean the same as ‘erode’ (घट जाना)
Solution: Option (4)
Explanation: The given word is used to describe as something that gradually wears away or rubbed away. So, from theabove-given options, option (4) is a right choice as the synonym of the word.
2. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘denial’ (इनकार)
Solution: Option (2)
Explanation: The given word is defined as a statement that something is not true or does not exist. Hence, from the given options, option (2) is the correct choice as the synonym of the word.
3. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘furnished’ (सुसज्जित)
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The given word refers to supply one with what is needed or required. So, from the given options, option (3) is an apt choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
4. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘woes’ (उदासी)
Solution: Option (1)
Explanation: The given word refers to some big problems or troubles. Hence, from the given options, option (1) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
5. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘formulation’ (निरूपण)
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The given word is often defined asan activity of creating or preparing something. Therefore, from all the above options, option (3) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
Word of the Day
Meaning (English) –is to deprive of force or strength or
making someone feel weak or without energy.
Meaning (Hindi) – शक्तिहीन करना / कमज़ोर करना
Synonyms – Tire, wear out
Antonyms – Strengthen, refresh
Example – The ultraviolet rays enervate our skin.
उदाहरण –पराबैंगनी किरणें हमारी त्वचा कमज़ोर बनI देती हैं।