List of important Antibiotics, its Source and Action

Antibiotics are introduced in 1940s and 1950s. They are medicines which are used to treat infections or diseases. Or we can say that it is a type of medication that destroys or slows down the growth of bacteria.
Created On: Oct 10, 2016 13:13 IST
Modified On: Mar 10, 2017 11:23 IST

Antibiotics are introduced in 1940s and 1950s. They are medicines which are used to treat infections or diseases caused by bacteria like respiratory diseases i.e. pneumonia etc. Or we can say that it is a type of medication that destroys or slows down the growth of bacteria.

Jagranjosh

Below is the list of various antibiotics its source and action. From this table it will be clear that in what type of disease or infection which antibiotic is useful.

Antibiotics

Source

Action

Pencillin

Penicillium chrysogenum, P.notatum + Phenyl Acetic Acid

Tonsilitis, Sore Throat, Gnonorrhea, Rheumatic Fever, some Pneumonia types.

Griseofulvin

Penicillium griseofulvum

Antifungal, especially for Ringworm.

Nystatin

Streptomyces noursei

Antifungal for Candidiasis and overgrowth of Intestinal Fungi during excessive antibiotic treatment.

Hamycin

Streptomyces pimprei

Antifungal for Thrush

                                                               Fumagillin

Aspergillus fumigatus

Broad spectrum antibacterial especially against Salmonella and Shigella.

Bacitracin

Bacillus licheniformis

Syphilis, Lymphonema or Reticulosis.

Streptomycin

Streptomyces griseus

Meningitis, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis and Local Infection. Toxic in some through eighth cranial nerve.

Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin

Streptomyces venezuelae, S.lavendulae and now synthetic

Typhoid, Typhus, Whooping cough, A typical Pneumonia, Bacterial Urinary Infections.

Tetracyclines/Aureomycin

Streptomyces aureofaciens

Viral pneumonia, Osteomyelitis, Whooping Cough and Eye infections.

Oxytetracycline/Terramycin

Chlorotetracycline- Hydrogenation Streptomyces rimousus

Intestinal and Urinary Infections (Spirochaetes, Rickettsia and Viruses)

Erythromycin

Streptomyces erythreus (=S. erythraeus)

Typhoid, Common Pneumonia and Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, etc.

Gentamycin

Micromonosopora purpurea

Effective against Gram (+) bacteria

Polymixin

Bacillus polymyxa

Antifungal

There are some antibiotics which are developed through various Biotechnologies. Below the list of it.

Some Antibiotics Developed through Biotechnology

Antibiotic

Microbial Source

Penicillin

Penicillium notatum and P chrysogenum

Bacitracin

Bacillus subtilis

Cephalosporin

Cephalosporium acremonium

Griseofulvin

Penicillium griseofulvum

Streptomycin

Streptomyces griseus

Tetracycline

S erythraeus

Erythromycin

S aureofaciens

Chloramphenicol

S venezuelae

Now let us see how do Antibiotics work?

An antibiotic work by killing the bacteria, block the important procedure that took place in bacteria or stops them from multiplying which helps the immune system to fight against the bacterial infection. There are some antibiotics that affect a wide range of bacteria known as broad spectrum antibiotics. Some affects only few types of bacteria known as narrow spectrum antibiotics. So, we can say that different types of antibiotics work in different ways. Like penicillin destroys bacterial cells some stops working bacteria’s cell work.