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List of important Antibiotics, its Source and Action

10-OCT-2016 13:13

    Antibiotics are introduced in 1940s and 1950s. They are medicines which are used to treat infections or diseases caused by bacteria like respiratory diseases i.e. pneumonia etc. Or we can say that it is a type of medication that destroys or slows down the growth of bacteria.

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    Below is the list of various antibiotics its source and action. From this table it will be clear that in what type of disease or infection which antibiotic is useful.

    Antibiotics

    Source

    Action

    Pencillin

    Penicillium chrysogenum, P.notatum + Phenyl Acetic Acid

    Tonsilitis, Sore Throat, Gnonorrhea, Rheumatic Fever, some Pneumonia types.

    Griseofulvin

    Penicillium griseofulvum

    Antifungal, especially for Ringworm.

    Nystatin

    Streptomyces noursei

    Antifungal for Candidiasis and overgrowth of Intestinal Fungi during excessive antibiotic treatment.

    Hamycin

    Streptomyces pimprei

    Antifungal for Thrush

                                                                   Fumagillin

    Aspergillus fumigatus

    Broad spectrum antibacterial especially against Salmonella and Shigella.

    Bacitracin

    Bacillus licheniformis

    Syphilis, Lymphonema or Reticulosis.

    Streptomycin

    Streptomyces griseus

    Meningitis, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis and Local Infection. Toxic in some through eighth cranial nerve.

    Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin

    Streptomyces venezuelae, S.lavendulae and now synthetic

    Typhoid, Typhus, Whooping cough, A typical Pneumonia, Bacterial Urinary Infections.

    Tetracyclines/Aureomycin

    Streptomyces aureofaciens

    Viral pneumonia, Osteomyelitis, Whooping Cough and Eye infections.

    Oxytetracycline/Terramycin

    Chlorotetracycline- Hydrogenation Streptomyces rimousus

    Intestinal and Urinary Infections (Spirochaetes, Rickettsia and Viruses)

    Erythromycin

    Streptomyces erythreus (=S. erythraeus)

    Typhoid, Common Pneumonia and Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, etc.

    Gentamycin

    Micromonosopora purpurea

    Effective against Gram (+) bacteria

    Polymixin

    Bacillus polymyxa

    Antifungal

    There are some antibiotics which are developed through various Biotechnologies. Below the list of it.

    Some Antibiotics Developed through Biotechnology

    Antibiotic

    Microbial Source

    Penicillin

    Penicillium notatum and P chrysogenum

    Bacitracin

    Bacillus subtilis

    Cephalosporin

    Cephalosporium acremonium

    Griseofulvin

    Penicillium griseofulvum

    Streptomycin

    Streptomyces griseus

    Tetracycline

    S erythraeus

    Erythromycin

    S aureofaciens

    Chloramphenicol

    S venezuelae

    Now let us see how do Antibiotics work?

    An antibiotic work by killing the bacteria, block the important procedure that took place in bacteria or stops them from multiplying which helps the immune system to fight against the bacterial infection. There are some antibiotics that affect a wide range of bacteria known as broad spectrum antibiotics. Some affects only few types of bacteria known as narrow spectrum antibiotics. So, we can say that different types of antibiotics work in different ways. Like penicillin destroys bacterial cells some stops working bacteria’s cell work.

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