Farid was the real name of Sher Shah. He was born in 1486. His father was in the service of an Afghan noble Jamal Khan. During his youth, Sher Shah entered into the service of Bahar Khan Lohani. While serving him, Farid earned the title of Sher Khan when he killed a tiger. The title was given to him by Bahar Khan Lohani.
However due to jealousy of other officials, Sher Shah was expelled by Bahar Khan Lohani. Sher Shah then joined the service of Babur. He also got a Jagir for his services. During this time, he learned the strength and weakness of Mughal army.
Soon he left the Mughal army and became Bahar Khan Lohani’s prime minister. After lohani’s death he became the ruler of his territories.
Battle of Chausa and Kannauj
He defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun in battle of Kannauj and Chausa and seized the throne of Delhi. He also forced Humayun to go in exile.
Sher Shah is credited with many administrative reforms which need a mention here.
He divided his entire kingdom into 47 Sarkars (divisions). The Sarkars were further divided into Parganas. The official who governed the Pargana was called Shikqdar who was in-charge of the law and order.
The other officials at Pargana level were as following:
• Munsif, who was in charge of collecting the revenue.
• Amir, who was appointed to hear the Civil Cases.
• Qazi or Mir-i-adal , who was appointed to hear the criminal cases.
• Muqqadams were the officials appointed to arrest the culprits.
• The Rupia (silver coin) was first introduced by Sher Shah in India which was remained in use during the Mughal rule.
• The patta system was introduced where the sown area and revenue share was written on paper.
• He introduced Qabuliyat system in place of Jagir system. Quabliyat is defined as an agreement between the peasant and government.
• Shershah also built a major road across the Gangetic plain for administrative and military purposes.
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