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The Brahmaputra River System

12-MAR-2018 15:36
    The Brahmaputra River System

    The Brahmaputra River System (3848 km) is one of the longest rivers of the world. It is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, the Brahmaputra, Lohit, Siang, and Dihang in India, and the Jamuna in Bangladesh.

    River Course of Brahmaputra River System

    It originates in Himalayan Lake Manasarover in Tibet to the outfall in the Bay of Bengal. It flows eastward in Tibet and south, south-west in India and traverses a distance of about 2900 km out of which 1,700km is in Tibet, 900 km is in India and 300 km is in Bangladesh. It is fed by the glaciers and joined by a number of tributaries which originates at different elevation in the hills encircling the catchment forming watershed.

    It traverses eastward longitudinally for a distance of nearly 1,200 km in a dry and flat region of southern Tibet, where it is known as the Tsangpo, which means ‘the purifier.’ The Rango Tsangpo is the major right bank tributary of this river in Tibet. It emerges as a turbulent and dynamic river after carving out a deep gorge in the Central Himalayas near Namcha Barwa (7,755 m).

    The river emerges from the foothills under the name of Siang or Dihang. It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh. Flowing southwest, it receives its main left bank tributaries, viz., Dibang or Sikang and Lohit; thereafter, it is known as the Brahmaputra. Among the tributaries Subansiri, Manas, Jiabharali, Pagladiya, Puthimari and Sankosh etc. are snow fed.

    Major tributaries of Brahmaputra River System

    Tributaries from North bank

    Tributaries from South bank

    The Jiadhal

    The Noa Dehing

    The Subansiri

    The Buridehing

    The Siang

    The Debang

    The Kameng (Jiabharali in Assam)

    The Dikhow

    The Dhansiri(North)

    The Dhansiri(S)

    The Puthimari

    The Kopili

    The Pagladiya

    The Digaru

    The Manas

    The Dudhnai

    The Champamati

    The Krishnai

    The Saralbhanga


    The Aie


    The Sankosh


    It receives numerous tributaries in its 750 km long journey through the Assam valley. Its major left bank tributaries are the Burhi Dihing, Dhansari (South) and Kalang whereas the important right bank tributaries are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas and Sankosh. The Subansiri which has its origin in Tibet is an antecedent river.

    Lakes in India

    The Brahmaputra enters into Bangladesh near Dhubri and flows southward. In Bangladesh, the Tista joins it on its right bank from where the river is known as the Jamuna. It finally merges with the river Padma, which falls in the Bay of Bengal. The Brahmaputra is well-known for floods, channel shifting and bank erosion. This is due to the fact that most of its tributaries are large, and bring large quantity of sediments owing to heavy rainfall in its catchment area.

    Dams built on the Brahmaputra Basin

    Name

    Purpose

    River

    State

    Type

    Doyang Hep Dam

    Hydroelectric, Drinking / Water Supply

    Doyang

    Nagaland

    Earthen

    Karbi Langpi Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Borpani

    Assam

    Gravity & Masonry

    Khandong Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Kopili

    Meghalaya

    Earthen

    Kyrdemkulai (Umiam st-III) Dam

    Hydroelectric, Irrigation, Drinking / Water Supply

    Umtru

    Meghalaya

    Gravity & Masonry

    Nongkhyllem Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Umtru

    Meghalaya

    -

    Ranganadi Dam

    Hydroelectric


    Arunachal Pradesh

    Gravity & Masonry

    Rangit III Dam

    Hydroelectric, Drinking / Water Supply

    Rangit

    Sikkim

    Gravity & Masonry

    Rangpo Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Rongpo

    Sikkim

    -

    Rongli Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Rongli

    Sikkim

    -

    Subansiri Lower HE (Nhpc) Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Subansiri

    Arunachal Pradesh

    Gravity & Masonry

    Teesta -V (NHPC) Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Teesta

    Sikkim

    Gravity & Masonry

    Teesta-III Dam


    Teesta

    Sikkim

    Rockfill

    Teesta-III Lower Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Teesta

    West Bengal

    Gravity & Masonry

    Teesta-IV Dam


    Teesta

    Sikkim

    Gravity & Masonry

    Teesta-IV Lower Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Teesta

    West Bengal

    Gravity & Masonry

    Umiam Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Umiam

    Meghalaya

    Earthen / Gravity & Masonry

    Umrong Dam

    Hydroelectric

    Umrong

    Assam

    Earthen

    Umtru Dam

    Hydroelectric,Irrigation,Drinking / Water Supply

    Umtru

    Meghalaya

    Earthen / Gravity & Masonry

    Source: india-wris.nrsc.gov.in

    The Brahmaputra River is volume wise largest river of India whereas lengthwise Ganga is the longest river of India. It is one of the longest rivers of the world and with regard to the volume of water it is among the fourth largest rivers of the world. It forms largest number of fresh water riverine islands in the world and among this, Majuli is the largest fresh water riverine island in the world.

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