World Malaria Report (WMR) 2020: Complete Analysis of the WHO Report
Why in News
World Health Organisation (WHO) has recently released the World Malaria Report (WMR) 2020. The report is mainly based on data collected in 2019.
Through this report WHO provides a detailed update on global and regional malaria infection trends. The report also includes preventive actions to be taken, diagnosis of the disease, its treatment, its elimination processes.
This year, India is among those countries who have made considerable progress in reducing its malaria patients.
WHO WMR Report 2020: Goals of WMR
Principles for achieving Global targets for 2030 as per WHO are listed below. Take a look
- All countries can accelerate efforts towards elimination through combinations of interventions tailored to local contexts
- Country ownership and leadership, with involvement and participation of communities, are essential to accelerating progress through a multisectoral approach
- Improved surveillance, monitoring and evaluation, as well as stratification by malaria burden, are required to optimize the implementation of malaria interventions
- Equity in access to health services, especially for the most vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations, is essential
- Innovation in tools and implementation approaches will enable countries to maximize their progression along the path to elimination
Check out the goals set up by WHO
|Goals||Milestones in 2020||Milestones in 2025||Target 2030|
|Reduce malaria mortality rates globally compared with 2015||At least 40%||At least 75%||At least 90%|
|Reduce malaria case incidence globally compared with 2015||At least 40%||At least 75 countries||At least 90%|
|Eliminate malaria from countries in which malaria was transmitted in 2015||At least 10 countries||At least 20 countries||At least 35 countries|
|4. Prevent re-establishment of malaria in all countries that are malaria-free||Re-establishment prevented||Re-establishment prevented||Re-establishment prevented|
World Malaria Report 2020: Global Analysis
- There are 229 million malaria cases around the globe last year. This count has not changed for the past four years. In 2019 alone, the disease claimed about 4,09,000 lives, compared to 4,11,000 in 2018.
- The countries with the highest number of cases are
- Burkina Faso
- The Democratic Republic of the Congo
- These countries alone account for 70% of the global malia cases and 71% of global estimated deaths from malaria.
- As per the reports from this year, the South-East Asian countries made reductions in cases by 73%. The number of deaths due to malaria also reduced by 74%.
Report Details: Analysis of India
As per the report, the figures and trends since 2000, indicate a drastic decline in disease patients, which makes malaria elimination target of 2030 achievable. Take a look at some key details of the report:
- India has been the only high endemic country that reported a decline of 17.6% in 2019 compared to previous years.
- India has seen the largest drop in cases region-wide. The cases have dropped from approximately 20 million to 6 million this year
- The Annual Parasite Incidence, API that is the number of new infections per 1000 people yearly has reduced by 18.4% in 2019. India has sustained at less than one API count since 2012
- India has seen a 71.8% drop in malaria cases and 73.9% deaths between 2000 to 2019. It has also achieved a reduction of 83.34% in malaria morbidity and 92% in malaria mortality in these 9 years. It has thus achieved Goal 6 of the Millennium Development Goals.
- Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Meghalaya and Madhya Pradesh had accounted for nearly 45.47% of malaria cases in 2019 with 63.64% of deaths being reported from there.
India's Fight against Malaria:
- In India, efforts to curb Malaria began in 2015. They gained momentum after the launch of the National Framework for Malaria Elimination, NFME in 2016 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- In July 2017, the National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination (2017-22) was launched laying down strategies for the next five years.
- Implementation of High Burden to High Impact (HBHI) initiative was launched for states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh in July 2019.
- In 2018, the WHO and the RBM Partnership initiated the HBHI initiative in 11 high malaria burden countries, including India to end malaria.
Malaria is the disease responsible for millions of deaths every year including India. It is caused by the mosquito bites of females Anopheles and Aedes species of mosquitoes that are inbred in every household improperly managed. Thus the Government needs to make people more aware of their surroundings and follow the Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan to its fullest extent so as to curb the spread of this disease.