Babur’s full name was Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur. He was a descendent of Timur from his father’s side and descendant of Changez Khan from his mother’s side. He belonged to Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin. He was the grandfather of Akbar the Great.
He was born in Fargana in 1483, contemporary Uzbekistan. Fargana was located between Persia and Turkestan. His father’s name was Umar Sheikh Mirza. When he was just 11 years old his father died and he succeeded him as the new ruler of Fargana.
Babur aspired to win Samarkand, the capital of Transoxiana but was defeated by Muhammad Shaybani in 1501. He was even exiled from Fargana due to conspiracy of his uncles and nephews. However, he managed to win Kabul. At Kabul, he got the invitation from Afghan nobles to attack Ibrahim Lodi and dislodge him.
He wrote his autobiography called Baburnama which is also known as Tuzk-e-Babri. The Baburnama is written in Chagatai Turkic, the mother tongue of Babur.
• He laid foundation of Mughal empire in India.
• He introduced Persian culture in India.