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IAS Exam: Prelims Economy NCERT Questions: Poverty Set II

Jan 22, 2016 17:21 IST

    NCERT Books are dispensable for the IAS Preparation. IAS Exam requires the good understanding of the NCERT Books. Economy is one of the most asked subjects on the IAS Prelims Exam. Here we present NCERT Based Questions for the IAS Prelims Exam.

    Q1. Evaluate the below statements.
    1. The official data on poverty is made available to the public by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO).
    2. It is estimated on the basis of consumption expenditure data collected by the Planning Commission.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. d)

    Explanation:
    The official data on poverty is made available to the public by the Planning Commission. It is estimated on the basis of consumption expenditure data collected by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO).

    Q2. Over the years, the government has been following approach/es to reduce poverty in India:
    1. Growth oriented development
    2. Specific poverty alleviation programmes
    3. Meeting the minimum needs of the poor.

    Select the correct statements using the codes given below:
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2 and 3

    Answer. d)

    Explanation: As per India Public Policy Report (IPPR) 2014,overcoming poverty in India requires a context specific multi-pronged strategy that includes: a basic needs approach, a human rights entitlement approach, a natural resource management approach and a focus on inclusive economic growth.

    Q3. Which among the following can be considered as the cause(s) of poverty?
    1. Social, economic and political inequality
    2. Social inclusion
    3. Unemployment
    4. Indebtedness
    5. Unequal distribution of wealth

    Select the correct option from the below codes:
    a) 1, 2, 3, and 4
    b) 2, 3, 4 and 5
    c) 1, 3, 4 and 5
    d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
    Answer. c)

    Explanation: Social exclusion.It meansexclusion from the prevailing social system and its rights and privileges, typically as a result of poverty or the fact of belonging to a minority social group.

    Q4. Although there was substantial de-industrialisation in India under the British rule:
    1. Imports of manufactured cotton yarn from Lancashire in England caused enhancement in local production.
    2. India reverted to being an exporter of cotton cloth.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. d)

    Explanation: There was substantial de-industrialisation in India under the British rule. Imports of manufactured cotton cloth from Lancashire in England displaced much local production, and India reverted to being an exporter of cotton yarn, not cloth.

    Q5. As over 70 per cent of Indians were engaged in agriculture throughout the British Raj period, the impact on that sector was more important on living standards than anything else.
    1. British policies involved sharply raising rural taxes that enabled merchants and moneylenders to become large landowners.
    2. Under the British, India began to import food grains and, as a result, as many as 26 million people died in famines between 1875 and 1900.

    Which of the above statements is/are not correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. b)

    Explanation: Under the British, India began to export food grains and, as a result, as many as 26 million people died in famines between 1875 and 1900.

    Q5. Consider the below statements:
    1. Even today agriculture is the principal means of livelihood and land is the primary asset of rural people.
    2. Owning of land does not contribute to material well-being and those who have land do not have any better chance to improve their living conditions.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. c)
    Explanation:
    Ownership of land is an important determinant of material well-being and those who own some land have a better chance to improve their living conditions.

    Q6. Evaluate the below statements with regard to land distribution.
    1. Since independence, the government has attempted to redistribute land to the landless but ignored those who do not have any land, but work on the land as wage labourers.
    2. This move was successful only to the extent intended and large sections of agricultural workers were able to farm on the small holdings that they now possessed
    3. Most of the Indian states succeeded to implement these land redistribution policies.

    Select the correct statements using the codes given below:
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) None of the above

    Answer. d)

    Explanation:
    the government has attempted to redistribute land and has taken land from those who have large amounts to distribute it to those who do not have any land, but work on the land as wage labourers. However, this move was successful only to a limited extent as large sections of agricultural workers were not able to farm the small holdings that they now possessed as they did not have either money (assets) or skills to make the land productive and the land holdings were too small to be viable. Also most of the Indian states failed to implement land redistribution policies.

    Q7. A large section of the rural poor in India are the small farmers. Which of the above are true with respect to situation of small Indian farmers?
    1. The land that they have is, in general, highly fertile and not dependent on rains.
    2. Their survival depends on subsistence crops and sometimes on livestock.
    3. With the rapid growth of population and without alternative sources of employment, the per-head availability of land for cultivation has steadily declined leading to fragmentation of land holdings.
    4. The income from these small land holdings is not sufficient to meet the family’s basic requirements.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below
    a) 1, 2 and 3 only
    b) 2, 3 and 4 only
    c) 1, 2 and 4 only
    d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

    Answer. b)

    Explanation: The land that they have is, in general, less fertile and dependent on rains. Thus, their survival depends on subsistence crops and sometimes on livestock.

    Q8. Consider the below statements with reference to cultivation of cotton in India.
    1. India has the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world.
    2. This leads it to its first position in production.
    3. The cotton farmers of Andhra and Maharashtra have benefited the most from globalization.

    Select the correct statements using the codes given below:
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2 and 3

    Answer. a)

    Explanation:
    India has the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world covering 8,300 hectares in 2002–03. The low yield of 300 kg per hectare pushes it into third position in production. High production costs, low and unstable yields, decline in world prices, global glut in production due to subsidies by the U.S.A. and other countries, and opening up of the domestic market due to globalisation have increased the exposure of farmers and led to agrarian distress and suicides especially in the cotton belt of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.

    Q9. Scholars cite several factors that have led farmers to commit suicides. Which among the following are relevant in this regard?
    1. The shift fromhigh yielding commercial crops back to the traditional farming.
    2. Lack of access to water for crops which forced the farmers to borrow money at exorbitant rates of interest to sink bore wells that failed.
    3. Low rates of germination of seeds provided by large global firms, spurious seeds and pesticides by private agents.
    4. Crop failure, pest attack and drought.
    5. Debt at very high interest rate of 36 per cent to 120 per cent from private money lenders
    6. Cheap imports leading to decline in pricing and profits.

    Select the correct option from the below codes:
    a) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6
    b) 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
    c) 3, 4, 5 and 6
    d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
    Answer. b)

    Explanation: The shift from traditional farming to the farming of high yielding commercial crops without adequate technical support in one of the crucial reasons.

    Q10. In the growth of Indian economy, the growth of agriculture and industry has not been impressive. Which of the following are correct reasons for the same?
    1. Population growth has resulted in a very low growth in per capita incomes.
    2. The gap between poor and rich has actually widened.
    3. The Green Revolution exacerbated the disparities regionally and between large and small farmers.
    4. There was unwillingness and inability to redistribute land.

    Select the correct answer using the codes given below
    a) 1, 2 and 3 only
    b) 2, 3 and 4 only
    c) 1, 2 and 4 only
    d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

    Answer. c)

    Explanation: Though the Green Revolution contributed to some disparities, it cannot be attributed for unimpressive growth of agriculture and industry.

    Q11. The government also has a variety of social security programmes to help a few specific groups. National Social Assistance Programme is one such programme initiated by the central government.
    1. Under this programme, elderly people who do not have anyone to take care of them are given pension to sustain themselves.
    2. Poor women who are destitute and widows are also covered under this scheme.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. c)

    Explanation: The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Government of India that provides financial assistance to the elderly, widows and persons with disabilities in the form of social pensions.

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