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IAS Prelims 2016 CSAT English Comprehension Set 5

Feb 5, 2016 17:15 IST

    In Civil Services IAS Prelim Exam, the CSAT paper is qualifying in nature; however, the IAS aspirants should not take this paper as so easy affair to crack. If an aspirant could not qualify the CSAT paper then his/her General Studies paper will not be evaluated irrespective of attempting the GS Paper extraordinarily. So this is important to make sure that your preparation for the CSAT Paper is up to the mark and you will qualify it comfortably.

    Here are the second and third passages, first solve it your own and also try to develop some strategies to cope with such a long comprehensions.

    Directions for Question 1 to 12: Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow:

    Passage – 8

    For a country, that is home to a quarter of the world’s hungry —195 million out of 795 million globally — the recent spike in the prices of pulses has been devastating. Pulses are a cheap source of protein, a vital part of the Indian diet, whether consumed with rice or rotis, more so among vegetarians. The central government has woken up to the situation, albeit, late. Hoarding is being cracked down upon, imports have been upped, and there is talk of planning for buffer stocks to prevent such events in the future. It is now being reported that prices will drop post Deepavali, leaving many with the prospect of facing a rather dim festival of lights.

    Meanwhile, in an affront to the struggling millions trying to make ends meet, the NDA-led government allowed the issue to be politicized, once again blaming states (especially ones with ongoing elections) for failing to keep inflation in check. By failing to take responsibility, a government that promised to be different, proved to be like any other. It has proved to be like other governments, also in what, so far at least, appear to be knee-jerk reactions to the current crisis. Cracking down on hoarders and increasing imports may provide some short-term relief. However, like others before it, the government has failed to look at long-term, sustainable solutions. Experts have been crying themselves hoarse over the need to incentivize farmers to grow pulses, to provide farmers who do so with the securities that rice, sugarcane and wheat farmers rely on. Irrigation solutions need to be sought and devised for farmers in drought-prone and drought-hit states.

    1. According to the passage, which of the following statement is true?

    a) Pulses are the staple food of the nation.
    b) Pulses are the source of protein.
    c) Prices of Pulses have decreased recently.
    d) Imports of pulses have decreased recently.

    Answer: b)

    Explanation: The first paragraph clearly indicates that Pulses are a cheap source of protein and a vital part of the Indian diet.

    2. For preventing hoarding and increase in prices of pulses in future, what step should be taken by the government?

    a) Create warehouses for pulses.
    b) Increase the imports of pulses.
    c) Create buffer stocks of pulses.
    d) Increase the exports of pulses.

    Answer: c)

    Explanation: The first paragraph clearly states that “Hoarding is being cracked down upon, imports have been upped, and there is talk of planning for buffer stocks to prevent such events in the future”.

    3. According to the passage, the government has failed to do which of the following things?

    a) Cracking down the hoarders.
    b) Increasing the imports of pulses.
    c) Politicizing the issue of price hike of pulses.
    d) Developing a long-term sustainable solution for keeping the prices of pulses in control.

    Answer: d)

    Explanation: The second paragraph clearly states that the government has failed to look at long-term, sustainable solutions for price hike.

    4. According to the author of the passage, what can be done to increase the production of pulses in India?

    a) Incentivize farmers to grow pulses.
    b) Increase the imports of pulses.
    c) Punishing the hoarders with heavy penalty.
    d) Incentivize farmers to grow rice, sugarcane and wheat.

    Answer: a)

    Explanation: The second paragraph clearly states that “Experts have been crying themselves hoarse over the need to incentivize farmers to grow pulses, to provide farmers who do so with the securities that rice, sugarcane and wheat farmers rely on”.

    Passage – 9

    Sikkim, the landlocked Himalayan state, has become the first organic state in the country, with around 75,000 hectares of agricultural land gradually converted to certified organic land by implementing practices and principles as per the guidelines laid down in the National Programme for Organic Production. The seeds were sown in 2003 when the Pawan Chamling-led Government decided to make Sikkim an organic farming state through a declaration in the State Assembly. The entry of chemical inputs for farmland was restricted and, later, their sale was banned, pushing farmers to go organic.

    This is a big fillip for the ‘green movement’. The rampant use of synthetic fertilisers, pesticides and other chemical inputs in farming is against nature, and has been a bane in the past few decades, as although it has increased crop productivity in the short-term, the long-term cost has been humongous, as research is now revealing. One, it is causing mother earth irretrievable damage, killing native practices that have stood the test of time and left many farmers at the mercy of seed and agrochemical companies, mostly MNCs. Two, it has created a Frankenstein monster in the form of carcinogenic agents that spread cancer. While the initial cost of organic farming is undoubtedly higher, making such products available only to the rich, once it achieves economies of scale, the cost of farming and consequently that of produce will automatically come down.

    5. Sikkim has become the first organic state of India because of which of the following reason?

    a) Sikkim’s beautiful scenery.
    b) Sikkim’s beautiful landscape.
    c) Farming in Sikkim is done without chemicals, artificial fertilizers and pesticides.
    d) Farming in Sikkim is done with chemicals, artificial fertilizers and pesticides.

    Answer: c)

    Explanation: The first paragraph of the passage clearly states that the entry of chemical inputs for farmland was restricted and, later, their sale was banned, pushing farmers to go organic. Hence, Farming in Sikkim is done without chemicals and artificial fertilizers.

    6. Which of the following facts is incorrect according to the passage?

    a) Organic farming in Sikkim was started in 2003.
    b) Chemical inputs for farmland are restricted in India.
    c) Chemical inputs for farmland are restricted in Sikkim.
    d) Agricultural land of Sikkim covers a geographical area of around 75,000 hectares.

    Answer: b)

    Explanation: Chemical inputs for farmland are restricted only in Sikkim and not in the whole India. Hence, option b) is incorrect.

    7. What does the author mean by the term ‘big fillip’ in the passage?

    a) Organic farming acts as a big hindrance for white movement.
    b) Organic farming acts as a big hindrance for green movement.
    c) Organic farming acts as a big roadblock for green movement.
    d) Organic farming acts as a big stimulus for green movement.

    Answer: d)

    Explanation: The author means to say that organic farming acts as a big stimulus for green movement.

    8. Which one of the following are negative effects of using synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and other chemical inputs in farming?

    I. Increased crop productivity.
    II. Killing native practices of farming.
    III. Producing carcinogenic agents that spread cancer.

    a) Only I and II
    b) Only II and III
    c) Only I and III
    d) All I, II and III

    Answer: b)

    Explanation: Only (I) is a positive effect. Rest of the options (II) and (III) are negative effects.

    Passage – 10

    With advent of the Recovery of Debts Due To Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 there was a great hope within the banking circle that most of the Non Performing Assets (NPA) shall be easy to recover. The banks, under the conventional system of recovery of loans, had a considerable amount of money blocked in form of unproductive assets. This act intended to provide for expeditious adjudication and recovery of debts due to banks and financial institutions. But this effort of the government was not enough. To fight the menace of the NPAs the Indian banks required more teeth. With an object to give the banks more powers and skill the government decided to bring in the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.

    As we know the financial sector is essential to the growth of a nation and this sector has been one of the keys to the India's efforts to achieve success in rapidly developing its economy. The banking sector has been striving to achieve international standards and is progressively complying with the international prudential norms and standards. Despite all this we have various areas where we don't enjoy level playing fields with the international banks and one of them has been the Menace of NPAs. Prior to 2002 there was no provision for facilitating securitization of financial assets and the power to take possession of securitized assets and selling them off. This act has come at a boon for the Indian banking industry and at a time when the industry was grappling with bad loans, which at that time accounted for 14% of their advances in gross terms and net NPA's at around 7%, which roughly amounted for upto Rs. 650 billion.

    9. The main objective of Recovery of Debts Due To Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 is:

    a) To recover Fixed Assets
    b) To recover Current Assets
    c) To recover Liquid Assets
    d) To recover Non- Performing Assets (NPAs)

    Answer: d)

    Explanation: The first line of the passage clearly states that the Recovery of Debts Due To Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 with the purpose that most of the Non Performing Assets (NPA) within the banking circle shall be easy to recover.

    10. Non-performing Assets (NPAs) are:

    a) Bad Stocks
    b) Bad loans
    c) Bad Shares
    d) Bad Inventories

    Answer: b)

    Explanation: The assets of the banks which don’t perform, i.e., don’t bring any return are called Non Performing Assets (NPA) or bad loans.

    11. Why was ‘Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002’ introduced?

    a) To fight the possible threat posed by the rising number of banking customers.
    b) To fight the possible threat posed by the rising number of Banks.
    c) To fight the possible threat posed by the rising number of NPAs.
    d) To fight the possible threat posed by the rising number of online transactions.

    Answer: c)

    Explanation: Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 was launched to fight the menace of the NPAs.

    12. Before 2002, which provision was not available to banks in case of reducing NPAs?

    a) Monetisation of financial assets.
    b) Securitization of financial assets.
    c) Optimization of financial assets.
    d) Amortization of financial assets.

    Answer: b)

    Explanation: Prior to 2002 there was no provision for facilitating securitization of financial assets and the power to take possession of securitized assets and selling them off.

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