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IBPS PO Exam: Reasoning: Syllogism- Study Material

Sep 17, 2013 13:11 IST

    Institute of Banking and Personnel Selection (IBPS) is about to conduct the Common Written Examination (CWE) for filling the post of Probationary Officers with eligible candidates. IBPS PO Exam 2013 is scheduled to be conducted on 19 October 2013, 20 October 2013, 26 October 2013, and 27 October 2013. The written examination contains 5 different sections that are General Awareness, English Language, Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude, and Computer Knowledge.

    The Reasoning Section of IBPS PO Exam comprises 40 questions from different topics like Classification, Analogy, Coding Decoding, Direction Sense, Blood Relation, etc. Here, Jagranjosh offers study material on every topic to assist aspirants in preparing for the upcoming IBPS PO Exam 2013.

    Syllogism

    Syllogism is mode of thinking in which one reasons from two statements or propositions, called premises to a third statement or a propositions called the conclusion. A premise is a statement that serves as the basis of the argument. Let us see some statements to elaborate the concept.

    1. All stars twinkle

    In this statement all the stars are twinkles, hence they should come under twinkles. So the representation will be as follows:

    S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    2. Some stars twinkle

    As in this statement only some stars are twinkles, there should be two intersecting circles. So the representation will be as follows:

    The shaded area represents the stars that twinkle. S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    3. No stars twinkle

    As no stars twinkle, hence these two are independent of each other. So the representation will be as follows:

    S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    4. Only stars twinkle

    In this case only stars twinkle, twinkle will come under stars. Nothing else can twinkle so twinkle will not have anything except starts intersecting with it. So the representation will be as follows:

    S = Stars, T = Twinkle

    Let us now see some examples to understand this better.

    Example 1)

    Statements:
    1. All trees are green.
    2. Banyan is a tree.

    Solution) We will get the following diagrams from the above two statements.

    B = Banyan, T = Tree, G = Green,
    As seen from the diagram, if all trees are green and Banyan is a tree. Banyan is included in the set of Greens and must be Green as well.

    Example 2)

    Statements:
    1. Some professors are serious peoples.
    2. All serious people wear spectacles.

    Solution) We will get the following diagrams from the above two statements.

    Therefore some professors wear spectacles. Here the shaded area represents those professors who wear spectacles

    Example 3)

    Statements:
    1. All dogs bark.
    2. Tommy barks

    Solution) Here, Tommy is another element in the set of barking things and may not be a dog. The diagrammatic representation would be as follows:

    However, here we cannot conclude that Tommy is a dog. All we can conclude is that Tommy may or may not be a dog.

    Questions in the form of Statement - Conclusion

    Directions (Q.1-3): In each group of questions below are given two/three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two/three statements, disregarding commonly known facts. Give answer

    1) if only conclusion I follows.
    2) if only conclusion II follows.
    3) if either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
    4) if neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows.
    5) if both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.

    1. Statements:
    Some exams are tests.
    No exam is a question.

    Conclusions:
    I. No question is a test.
    II. Some tests are definitely not exams.

    Solution:
    1. 4; Some exams are tests → conversion → Some tests are exams (I) + No exam is a question (E) = I + E = O = Some tests are not questions.
    Hence, neither conclusion I nor II follows.

    2. Statements:
    All forces are energies.
    All energies are powers.
    No power is heat.

    Conclusions:
    I. Some forces are definitely not powers.
    II. No heat is force.

    Solution:
    2. 2; All forces are energies (A) + All energies are powers (A) = A + A = A = All forces are powers (A) + No power is heat (E) = A + E = E = No force is heat → conversion → No heat is force.

    Hence, conclusion II follows but conclusion I does not follow.

    3. Statements:
    All forces are energies.
    All energies are powers.
    No power is heat.

    Conclusions:
    I. No energy is heat.
    II. Some forces being heat is a possibility.

    Solution:
    3. 1; All energies are powers (A) + No power is heat (E) = A + E = E = No energy is heat.

    Hence, conclusion I follows.

    But, All forces are power (A) + No power is heat (E) = A + E = E = No force is heat.

    So, conclusion II does not follow.

    Banking Experts of Jagranjosh.com work hard to provide good study material to the candidates. The aspirants will get almost every kind of assistance through jagranjosh.com. Refer the below link for study material on other topics and tips for cracking the exam easily.

    IBPS PO Exam Reasoning

    Tips and Strategy for IBPS PO Exam

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