Mathematics is a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement. The Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Mahāvīra, Bhaskara II, Madhava of Sangamagrama, Nilakantha Somayaji etc. are classical Indian mathematician and their contribution in mathematics made them immortal. For example- decimal number system, concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry etc. From ancient to the Medieval India, the mathematical works were composed in Sanskrit especially consists of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated.
Here, we are giving the list of Indian mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India with their contribution.
1. Baudhayana
Born: Around 800 BC
Notable Work: Approximation of the square root of 2 and the statement of a version of the Pythagorean Theorem
Born: Around 300 BC
Notable Work: Varttika, Vyakarana, later Sulba Sutras
Born: Around 500 BC
Notable Work: Matrameru, binary numeral system, arithmetical triangle
Born: Between 476-550 CE
Notable works: Aryabhaṭiya, Arya-siddhanta
Notable Ideas: Explanation of lunar eclipse and solar eclipse, rotation of Earth on its axis, reflection of light by moon, sinusoidal functions, solution of single variable quadratic equation, value of π correct to 4 decimal places, circumference of Earth to 99.8% accuracy, calculation of the length of sidereal year.
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Born: Between 505–587 CE
Notable Work: Pancha-Siddhāntikā, Brihat-Samhita, Brihat Jataka
Born: Around 6th-century CE
Known for: Mathematician and writer of the book Tiloyapannatti which gives various units for measuring distances and time and postulated different concepts about infinity
Born: Between 598–670 CE
Known for: Zero, Modern number system, Brahmagupta's theorem, Brahmagupta's identity, Brahmagupta's problem, Brahmagupta-Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta's interpolation formula, Brahmagupta's formula
Born: Between 600–680 CE
Known for: Sine approximation formula
Born: Between 650–850 CE
Contribution: Gave a rule for finding the volume of a sphere
Born: 9th century CE
Notable Work: His work is a highly syncopated approach to algebra and the emphasis in much of his text is on developing the techniques necessary to solve algebraic problems.
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Born: 11th century CE
Notable Work: He translated Ganitasara Samgraham, a mathematical treatise of Mahivaracharya, into Telugu as Sara Sangraha Ganitamu.
Born: 1114–1185 CE
Known for: Discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations
Born: Between 1340–1400 CE
Notable Work: Arithmetical treatise called Ganita Kaumudi ; Algebraic treatise called Bijganita Vatamsa
Born: 1340-1350 CE
Known for: Discovery of power series expansions of trigonometric sine, cosine and arctangent functions
Notable work: Golavada, Madhyamanayanaprakara, Venvaroha
Born: Between AD 1360–1455
Notable Work: Discovered drk-ganita, a mode of astronomy based on observations
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Born: Around AD1444
Notable Work: Golasara, Candrachayaganita, Aryabhatiya-bhashya, Tantrasamgraha Raghunatha Siromani
Born: Around AD1530
Notable Work: Yukti-dipika - an extensive commentary in verse on Tantrasamgraha based on Yuktibhasa; Laghu-vivrti - a short commentary in prose on Tantrasamgraha; Kriya-kramakari - a lengthy prose commentary on Lilavati of Bhaskara II
Born: Around AD1500
Known for: Authorship of Yuktibhaṣa
Notable work: Yuktibhāṣā, Drkkarana
Born: Around 17th century
Notable Work: Produced accurate sine tables
Born: Around AD 1657
Notable Work: Combined traditional Indian astronomy with Aristotelian physics and Ptolemaic astronomy as presented by Islamic scientists; Given formulae for sin(A/2) and sin(A/4) in terms of sin(A) and iterative formulae for sin(A/3) and sin(A/5); Given a table for finding the right ascension of a planet from its longitude.
21. Jagannatha Samrat
Born: Around AD1730
Notable Work: Siddhanta-samrat, Yantra-prakara
Born: Around 1813 AD
Known for: Calculated height of Mount Everest
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Born: 11 January, 1835-36 AD
Known for: Naked eye astronomy
Born: 15 November, 1876 AD
Known for: Establishing the culture of organised mathematical research in India
Notable work: A Treatise on Spherical Harmonics and the Functions of Bessel and Lame
Born: 22 December 1887
Known for: Landau–Ramanujan constant; Mock theta functions; Ramanujan conjecture; Ramanujan prime; Ramanujan–Soldner constant; Ramanujan theta function; Ramanujan's sum; Rogers–Ramanujan identities; Ramanujan's master theorem
Born: 29 June 1893
Known for: Mahalanobis distance Feldman–Mahalanobis model
27. Subbayya Sivasankaranarayana Pillai
Born: April 5, 1901
Known for: Pillai's conjecture; Pillai's arithmetical function; Pillai prime
Born: 19 June 1901
Known for: Association scheme; Bose–Mesner algebra; Euler's conjecture on Latin squares; strongly regular graphs; Partial Geometries; Morse code
Born: 11 December 1906
Known for: Multivariate analysis
Born: 19 October 1910
Known for: Chandrasekhar limit; Chandra X-ray Observatory; Chandrasekhar friction; Chandrasekhar number; Chandrasekhar tensor; Chandrasekhar equation; Chandrasekhar virial equations; Chandrasekhar's Variational Principle; 1958 Chandra; Schonberg–Chandrasekhar limit
Born: 19 October 1917
Known for: Euler's conjecture
Born: 23 May 1918
Known for: Vaidya Metric, Vaidya–Patel solution, Einstein field equations
Born: 1 February 1919
Known for: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient Vidyasagar University
Born: 10 September 1920
Known for: Cramér–Rao bound, Rao–Blackwell theorem, Orthogonal arrays, Score test
Born: 11 October 1923
Known for: Harish-Chandra's c-function;Harish-Chandra's character formula; Harish-Chandra homomorphism; Harish-Chandra isomorphism; Harish-Chandra module; Harish-Chandra's regularity theorem; Harish-Chandra's Schwartz space; Harish Chandra transform; Harish-Chandra's Ξ function
Born: 30 April 1924
Known for: Bahadur efficiency; Anderson–Bahadur algorithm; Bahadur-Ghosh-Kiefer representation
Born: April 25, 1925
Known for: Fisher consistency
Born: July 22, 1930
Known for: Abhyankar's conjecture, Abhyankar's lemma, Abhyankar–Moh theorem
Born: February 29, 1932
Known for: Seshadri constant; Narasimhan–Seshadri theorem;standard monomial theory
Born: 6 April 1935
Born: 10 June 1935
Known for: Power law inflation in Brans–Dicke theory; Theory of integrated tracking of quintessence fields of dark energy;Phantom cosmologies
Born: 25 June 1936
Known for: Quantum stochastic calculus
Born: May 1937
Known for: Trombi–Varadarajan theorem
Born: 10 June 1938
Known for: Combinatorial design and Graph Theory
Born: 2 January 1940
Known for: Martingale problems; large deviation theory
Born: April 2, 1942
Known for: Reproducing Kernels and Operators with a Cyclic Vector
Born: 1943
Known for: Frequency partition,Line graphs, Degree sequences
Born: 1949
Known for: Combinatorics and Graph Theory
Sujatha Ramdorai
Known for: non-commutative Iwasawa theory, Arithmetic of Algebraic varieties
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Born: 1957
Known for: Karmarkar's algorithm
Born: 20 May, 1966
Known for: AKS primality test
Born: 1968
Known for: Proof of Serre conjecture
Known for: Unique games conjecture
Known for: Providing a counter-example over a field of positive characteristic to the special Zariski Cancellation Problem
In the above list of Indian Mathematicians from Ancient to Modern India will enhance the general knowledge of the readers.