The fifth largest state of India is Uttar Pradesh. It is also the most populous state of India. The climate of Uttar Pradesh varies widely as compared to other states. Its temperature can go as high as 47 °C in summer season or can touch the mark of -1 °C in the winter season. Uttar Pradesh is located in the north-central part of India. It spreads over a large area. The plains of the state are quite distinctly different from the high mountains in the north. In the North, Uttar Pradesh is bounded by Nepal. On the North West lie Himachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand lies on the north-east. Uttar Pradesh is the fifth largest state in the country in terms of area.
There are three distinct hypsographical regions in which Uttar Pradesh can be divided. They are:
The Himalayan region: In the North lays The Himalayan Region. The elevation of the Himalayan region ranges from 300 to 5000m. It has varied terrain and is highly rugged.
The Gangetic Plain: The Gangetic Plain lies in the centre. It is highly fertile alluvial soils. Its flat topography is broken by numerous lakes, ponds and rivers.
The Vindhya Hills: The Vindhya Hills are located in the south. It has limited water availability. It has varied topography of plains, hills, plateau and valleys.
There is a wide variety of flora and fauna in Uttar Pradesh. The forests constitute about 12.8% of the total geographical area of UP State. The districts of Ghazipur, Jaunpur and Ballia have no forest land however there are 31 other districts that have less forest area. Uttar Pradesh has a wealth of animal life. The fauna of Uttar Pradesh is among the richest in the country. The variety of animals include wild bear, tiger, leopard, chital, sambhar, sloth bear, jackal, jungle cat, hare, porcupine, squirrel, fox and monitor lizards. The most common among birds are the jungle fowl, black partridge, crow, house sparrow, peafowl, pigeon, dove, blue jay, kite, mynah, quail, parakeet, bulbul, woodpecker and kingfisher.