ICSE Class 10th Chemistry Syllabus 2023: Chemistry paper is part of the science subject in Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) Class 10, and studying science is a must for all ICSE students, making Chemistry an important sub-subject for ICSE Class 10. Science (Code: 52) comprises three papers: 1-Physics, 2-Chemistry, and 3-Biology. Chemistry paper is difficult no doubt, but with committed studying, even the ICSE class 10 Chemistry Board exams become a piece of cake. Take a look at the ICSE Class 10 Chemistry syllabus to make sure you haven't missed out covering any essential topics. Read and download the latest and revised ICSE Board Class 10 Chemistry syllabus 2023 pdf here.
ICSE Board Class 10 Chemistry Syllabus
The ICSE class 10 Chemistry paper will carry 80 marks, and the duration will be two hours. There will also be a separate internal assessment of 20 marks to test students’ ability to apply the theory in practical life.
Note: All chemical processes / reactions should be studied with reference to the reactants, products, conditions, observation, the (balanced) equations and diagrams.
- Periodic Properties and variations of Properties – Physical and Chemical
(i) Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods.
Definitions and trends of the following periodic properties in groups and periods should be studied:
- atomic size
- metallic character
- non-metallic character
- ionisation potential
- electron affinity
(ii) Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.
- The study of modern periodic table up to period 4(students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 4 - Calcium).
- Periodicity and other related properties to be explained on the basis of nuclear charge and shells (not orbitals).
(Special reference to the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and inert gases).
- Chemical Bonding
Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds, Electron dot structure.
(a) Electrovalent bonding:
- Electron dot structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO.
- Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis.
(b) Covalent Bonding:
- Electron dot structure of covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example: hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.
- Polar Covalent compounds – based on difference in electronegativity:
Examples – HCl, NH3 and H2O including structures.
- Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution.
Comparison of Electrovalent and Covalent compounds.
(c) Coordinate Bonding:
- The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+and OH-ions in water and NH4+ ion.
The meaning of lone pair; the formation of hydronium ion and ammonium ion must be explained with the help of electron dot diagrams.
- Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
(i) Simple definitions, classification and their characteristic properties.
(ii) Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
- Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of acids, bases and salts.
- Acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue.
- Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal or ionic definition of salt. (To be explained with suitable examples).
- Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator and common acid base indicators.
(iii) Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.
(iv) Action of dilute acids on salts.
Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates, carbonates, sulphites and sulphides by appropriate acids with heating if necessary. (Relevant laboratory work must be done).
- Analytical Chemistry
(i) Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide on solution of salts: colour of salt and its solution; formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
On solution of salts:
- Colour of salt and its solution.
- Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop and in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
- Action on addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop and in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
- Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
(ii) Action of alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on certain metals, their oxides and hydroxides.
The metals must include aluminium, zinc and lead, their oxides and hydroxides, which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH, KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of these substances.
- Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
(i) Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes
Statement and explanation with numerical problems.
(ii)Vapour Density and its relation to relative molecular mass:
- Molecular mass = 2×vapour density (formal proof not required)
- Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from: (a) the percentage composition of a compound.
(b) the masses of combining elements.
(i) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.
Definitions and examples.
(ii) Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
- Substances containing molecules only ions only, both molecules and ions.
- Examples: relating their composition with their behaviour as strong and weak electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.
(iii) Definition and explanation of electrolysis, electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion,
cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
(iv) An elementary study of the migration of ions, with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions (reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals, e.g., Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis of:
- Molten lead bromide
- acidified water with platinum electrodes
- Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with inert electrode, copper electrodes; electron transfer at the electrodes.
The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used, electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective discharge theory, wherever applicable.
(v) Applications of electrolysis.
- Electroplating with nickel and silver, choice of electrolyte for electroplating.
- Electro refining of copper.
Reasons and conditions for electroplating; names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating, refining of copper.
- Study of Compounds
A. Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); reaction with ammonia; acidic properties of its solution.
- Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants, product, condition, equation, diagram or setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, precaution, collection of the gas and identification /tests.
- Simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than air.
- Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, inference.
- Method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water- the special funnel arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt.
- Reaction with ammonia
- Acidic properties of its solution - reaction with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides; decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, sulphides, sulphites.
- Reaction of Manganese dioxide with concentrated HCl.
- Precipitation reactions with silver nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.
Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber’s Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and lead monoxide and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen.
Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; (the preparation to be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification/tests.)
- Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN using warm water.
Ammonia from ammonium salts using alkalies.
The reactions to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions and equations.
- Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
- Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment).
- The burning of ammonia in oxygen.
- The catalytic oxidation of ammonia (with conditions and reaction)
- Its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide, lead monoxide and chlorine (both chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess).
All these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations and observations.
- Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.
C. Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. Large scale preparation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent.
- Laboratory preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the laboratory method to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations, setting up of apparatus,
diagram, precautions, collection and identification/tests.
- Manufacture of Nitric acid by Ostwald’s process (Only equations with conditions where applicable).
- As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper, carbon, sulphur.
- Thermal decomposition of nitrates.
D. Sulphuric Acid
Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when concentrated - oxidation of carbon, sulphur and copper; as a dehydrating agent - dehydration of sugar (cane sugar/glucose) and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature.
- Manufacture by Contact Process Equations with conditions where applicable).
- Its behaviour as an acid when dilute -reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal sulphide.
- Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent - the oxidation of carbon sulphur and copper.
- Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
- Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid - reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
- Tests for dilute and concentrated sulphuric acid.
- Organic Chemistry
(i) Introduction to Organic compounds.
- Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency, catenation.
- Formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight chain, branched chain, cyclic compounds (only benzene). ammonia in oxygen.
(ii) Structure and Isomerism.
- Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds.
- Structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acid up to 5 carbon atoms.
- Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
(iii) Homologous series – characteristics with examples.
Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula.
(iv) Simple nomenclature.
Simple nomenclature of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with only one functional group).
(v) Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
- Alkanes - general formula; methane (greenhouse gas) and ethane - methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium propionate), from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Complete combustion of methane and ethane, reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.
- Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction and dehydration reactions.
- Alkynes - (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne; Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide).
Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes and alkynes.
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICAL WORK
Candidates will be asked to observe the effect of reagents on substances supplied to them. The exercises will be simple and may include the recognition and identification of certain gases and ions listed below. The examiners will not, however, be restricted in their choice to substances containing the listed ions.
Gases: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Chlorine, Hydrogen chloride, Sulphur dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide, Ammonia, Water vapour, Nitrogen dioxide.
Ions: Calcium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Zinc and Ammonium, Carbonate, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphide, Sulphite and Sulphate.
Knowledge of a formal scheme of analysis is not required. Semi-micro techniques are acceptable but candidates using such techniques may need to adapt the instructions given to suit the size of the apparatus being used.
Candidates are expected to have completed the following minimum practical work:
- Make a solution of the unknown substance: add sodium hydroxide solution or ammonium hydroxide solution, make observations and give your deduction. Warming the mixture may be needed. Choose from substances containing Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, NH4+.
- Determine which of the given solutions is acidic and which is basic, giving two tests for each.
- Add concentrated hydrochloric acid to each of the given substances, warm, make observations, identify any product and make deductions: (a) copper oxide (b) manganese dioxide.
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