UPSC: UPSC IAS Mains optional includes two optional papers of 250 marks each. Malayalam is one of the 22 official languages according to the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution. Malayalam has a long history and the earliest recorded literary work available. The IAS syllabus on the subject includes the history and development of the language, standardization of grammar, and its linguistic features. It also includes the ancient and medieval history of the literature, important works from all time periods, including the modern era, and various forms like prose, poetry, and essays, etc. The language is used in Kerala, parts of Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. It is also used in the Lakshadweep islands. Aspirants with prior knowledge of Malayalam literature should opt for this subject as optional in the UPSC IAS Mains 2020 exam.
UPSC Optional Syllabus for Malayalam Literature Paper I
Unit 1-Early phase of Malayalam Language:
1.1 Various theories: origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit.
1.2 Relation between Tamil and Malayalam: Six nayas of A.R. Rajarajavarma.
1.3 Pattu school-definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works-Niranam works and Krishnagatha.
Unit 2-Linguistic features of :
2.1 Manipravalam-definition. Language of early manipravala works-Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later Manipravala works-medieval Champu and Attakkatha.
2.2 Folklore-Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs.
2.3 Early Malayalam prose-Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.
Unit 3-Standardization of Malayalam
3.1 Peculiarities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu, and Tullal.
3.2 Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam.
3.3 Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam: Malayalam as the administrative language. Language of scientific and technical literature-media language.
Section B; Literary History
Unit-4 Ancient and Medieval Literature:
4.1 Pattu-Ramacharitam, Niranam works and Krishnagatha.
4.2 Manipravalam-early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu.
4.3 Folk literature.
4.4 Kilippattu, Tullal, and Mahakavya.
Unit 5- Modern Literature-Poetry
5.1 Venmani poets and contemporaries.
5.2 The advent of Romanticism-Poetry of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol
5.3 Poetry after Kavitraya.
5.4 Modernism in Malayalam poetry.
Unit 6- Modern Literature-Prose
6.3 Short story
6.4 Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.
UPSC Optional Syllabus for Malayalam Literature Paper-II
➨ Answers must be written in Malayalam.
➨ This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate's critical ability.
1.1 Ramacharitam-Patalam 1.
1.2 Kannassaramayanam-Balakandam first 25 stanzas.
1.3 Unnunilisandesam-Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana
1.4 Mahabharatham Kilippattu-Bhishmaparvam.,
2.1 Kumaran Asan-Chintavisthayaya Sita.
2.3 G. Sankara Kurup-Perunthachan.
2.4 N.V. Krishna Variar-Tivandiyile Pattu.
3.1 ONV -Bhumikkoru Charamagitam
3.2 Ayyappa Panicker-Kurukshetram.
3.3 Akkittam-Paudatha Messanthi
3.4 Attur Ravivarma-Megharupan.
4.1 O. Chanthu Menon-Indulekha
4.3 O V Vijayan-Khasakkinte Ithihasam.
5.1 MT Vasudevan Nair-Vanaprastham (Collection).
5.2 N S Madhavan-Higvitta (Collection).
5.3 C J. Thomas-1128-il Crime 27.
6.1 Kuttikrishna Marar-Bharataparyatanam
6.2 M. K Sanu-Nakshatrangalute snehabhajanam
6.3 V.T. Bhattathirippad-Kannirum Kinavum.